Loops formed by the particles falling back from second tidal tail. Each panel is centred on the centre of mass of the secondary galaxy, indicated by a cross. In this figure, the tidal tail is formed from a 3:1 merger (model M3L34, see Sect. 5). The size of each panel is 300 by 300 kpc. The stellar mass surface density of the loops at 8.6 Gyr is consistent with the estimation of Martínez-Delgado et al. (2008) for NGC 5907. The top row shows the loop formation process as seen from the observed viewing angle, while the bottom row gives a face-on view of the loops at the same times. The red arrows in the second column indicate the first loop, the pink arrows in the third column show the second loop, the blue and green arrows in the fourth column show the third and fourth loops, and the black arrow in the last column shows the fifth loop. In the bottom-left panel, solid and dotted circles indicate the radii of the original location of the particles which constitute the tidal tails at 5.6 Gyr and 8.6 Gyr, respectively. Particles with small elevations are selected from the region between the green and the black circles, and those with high elevation, from beyond the black circle.
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