Volume 616, August 2018
|Number of page(s)||50|
|Published online||28 August 2018|
HERschel Observations of Edge-on Spirals (HEROES)
IV. Dust energy balance problem⋆
Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Gent, Belgium
2 St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskij pr. 28, 198504 St. Petersburg, Stary Peterhof, Russia
3 Central Astronomical Observatory of RAS, Pulkovskoye chaussee 65/1, 196140 St. Petersburg, Russia
4 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
5 School of Physics & Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
7 Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, 58089, Michoacán, Mexico
8 Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
9 University of Louisville, Department of Physics and Astronomy, , 102 Natural Sciences Building, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
10 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
11 CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China
12 School of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China
13 Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy, China-Chile Joint Center for Astronomy, Camino El Observatorio #1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
14 Faulkes Telescope Project, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales, UK
15 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
16 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands
17 Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
Accepted: 23 April 2018
We present results of the detailed dust energy balance study for the seven large edge-on galaxies in the HEROES sample using three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer (RT) modelling. Based on available optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of the HEROES galaxies, we derive the 3D distribution of stars and dust in these galaxies. For the sake of uniformity, we apply the same technique to retrieve galaxy properties for the entire sample: we use a stellar model consisting of a Sérsic bulge and three double-exponential discs (a superthin disc for a young stellar population and thin and thick discs for old populations). For the dust component, we adopt a double-exponential disc with the new THEMIS dust-grain model. We fit oligochromatic RT models to the optical and NIR images with the fitting algorithm FITSKIRT and run panchromatic simulations with the SKIRT code at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to submillimeter. We confirm the previously stated dust energy balance problem in galaxies: for the HEROES galaxies, the dust emission derived from our RT calculations underestimates the real observations by a factor 1.5–4 for all galaxies except NGC 973 and NGC 5907 (apparently, the latter galaxy has a more complex geometry than we used). The comparison between our RT simulations and the observations at mid-infrared–submillimetre wavelengths shows that most of our galaxies exhibit complex dust morphologies (possible spiral arms, star-forming regions, more extended dust structure in the radial and vertical directions). We suggest that, in agreement with results from the literature, the large- and small-scale structure is the most probable explanation for the dust energy balance problem.
Key words: galaxies: ISM / infrared: ISM / galaxies: fundamental parameters / dust, extinction
© ESO 2018
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