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Fig. 1

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GRB 050904 X-ray afterglow unabsorbed flux as obtained from “xrtgrblc” task (open black circle) and from the “burst analyzer” tool by Evans et al. (2010) (green triangles). The black solid square at about 3.254 days after the burst trigger is the flux estimated with the stacking method discussed in the text and used in the temporal analysis. The solid line is the best-fit smoothed broken power-law model from the optical data from Tagliaferri et al. (2005) (see inserted panel). The dashed vertical lines indicate the three epochs at which the largest spectral optical coverage is available from the literature, namely T + 0.47, T + 1.25, and T + 3.4 days. The blue dot-short-dashed and red dot-long-dashed lines indicate the expected average flare intensity evolution with time, for two different decay rates predicted for late time flares (see Sect. 2.1 for more details). The bottom panel shows the X-ray photon index as a function of time obtained by both the “xrtgrblc” task (black circle) and the “burst analyzer” tool (green triangles), as well as the estimate obtained with the stacking method at about 3.4 days after the burst (black squares). Horizontal dashed line indicates the expected value at the epochs of our interest where νc < νX, for a synchrotron emission from an electron population with energy spectral index of p ~ 2.1−2.5, that is .

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