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Fig. 4


Reconstruction based on RG during 1700–2010. a) Total surface flux. b) Polar field. Solid and dashed curves are for the northern and southern hemisphere, respectively. c) Open heliospheric flux. The red curve gives the reconstruction, the grey curve is the 11-yr running average. The open flux as inferred from the geomagnetic aa index (Lockwood et al. 2009) is represented by the black curve. d) Axial (solid curve) and equatorial (dashed curve) dipole field strength.

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