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Fig. 4


Fluorescence emission lines modelling of the phase-averaged spectra PN & MOS of 4U 1538−52. Top panel: spectra and best-fit model (three absorbed power laws and four emission lines) obtained with EPIC/PN and EPIC/MOS. Bottom panels show the residuals in units of σ for models taking different numbers of emission lines into account (MOS-1 black filled square and MOS-2 grey cross). Second panel: without emission lines. Third panel: fluorescence iron emission line at  ~6.4 keV. Fourth panel: fluorescence iron emission line plus a recombination line at  ~2.42 keV. Fifth panel: fluorescence iron emission line plus two recombination lines at  ~2.42 keV and  ~1.90 keV. Bottom panel: fluorescence iron emission line plus three recombination lines at  ~2.42 keV,  ~1.90 keV and  ~1.34 keV.

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