Volume 662, June 2022
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||15 June 2022|
Exoplanet atmospheres at high resolution through a modest-size telescope
Fe II in MASCARA-2b and KELT-9b with FIES on the Nordic Optical Telescope
National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark,
2 University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
3 University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Astronomy & Astrophysics Group, Coventry CV4 7AL UK
4 Ludwig Maximilian University, University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, Munich 81679 Germany
5 Lund Observatory, Box 43, Sölvegatan 27, 22100 Lund, Sweden
6 Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 USA
7 Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark & Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5–7, 1350 Copenhagen K., Denmark
Accepted: 8 March 2022
Ground-based, high-resolution spectrographs are providing us with an unprecedented view of the dynamics and chemistry of the atmospheres of planets outside the Solar System. While there are a large number of stable and precise high-resolution spectrographs on modest-size telescopes, it is the spectrographs at observatories with apertures larger than 3.5 m that dominate the atmospheric follow-up of exoplanets. In this work we explore the potential of characterising exoplanetary atmospheres with FIES, a high-resolution spectrograph at the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. We observed two transits of MASCARA-2 b (also known as KELT-20 b) and one transit of KELT-9 b to search for atomic iron, a species that has recently been discovered in both neutral and ionised forms in the atmospheres of these ultra-hot Jupiters using large telescopes. Using a cross-correlation method, we detect a signal of Fe II at the 4.5σ and 4.0σ level in the transits of MaSCARA-2 b. We also detect Fe II in the transit of KELT-9 b at the 8.5σ level. Although we do not find any significant Doppler shift in the signal of MASCARA-2 b, we do measure a moderate blueshift (3–6 km s−1) of the feature in KELT-9 b, which might be a manifestation of high-velocity winds transporting Fe II from the planetary dayside to the nightside. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of investigating exoplanet atmospheres with FIES, and it potentially unlocks a wealth of additional atmosphere detections with this and other high-resolution spectrographs mounted on similar-size telescopes.
Key words: instrumentation: spectrographs / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: gaseous planets
© ESO 2022
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