Volume 661, May 2022
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||06 May 2022|
Hubble Asteroid Hunter
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE),
Garching bei München, Germany
2 European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands
3 Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
4 Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, 5 Cutitul de Argint, 040557 Bucharest, Romania
5 European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada Madrid, Spain
6 Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, France
7 Google Cloud, 6425 Penn Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15206, USA
8 Google, Claude Debussylaan 34, 1082 MD Amsterdam, Netherlands
9 RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Canada Madrid, Spain
10 SERCO for European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Canada Madrid, Spain
11 QUASAR SCIENCE RESOURCES for European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Canada Madrid, Spain
Accepted: 25 January 2022
Context. Large and publicly available astronomical archives open up new possibilities to search for and study Solar System objects. However, advanced techniques are required to deal with the large amounts of data. These unbiased surveys can be used to constrain the size distribution of minor bodies, which represents a piece of the puzzle for the formation models of the Solar System.
Aims. We aim to identify asteroids in archival images from the ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Science data archive using data mining.
Methods. We developed a citizen science project on the Zooniverse platform, Hubble Asteroid Hunter, and have asked members of the public to identify asteroid trails in archival HST images. We used the labels provided by the volunteers to train an automated deep learning model built with Google Cloud AutoML Vision to explore the entire HST archive to detect asteroids crossing the field-of-view.
Results. We report the detection of 1701 new asteroid trails identified in archival HST data via our citizen science project and the subsequent machine learning exploration of the ESA HST science data archive. We detect asteroids to a magnitude of 24.5, which are statistically fainter than the populations of asteroids identified from ground-based surveys. The majority of asteroids are distributed near the ecliptic plane, as expected, where we find an approximate density of 80 asteroids per square degree. We matched 670 trails (39% of the trails found) with 454 known Solar System objects in the Minor Planet Center database; however, no matches were found for 1031 (61%) trails. The unidentified asteroids are faint, on average 1.6 magnitudes fainter than the asteroids we succeeded in identifying. They probably correspond to previously unknown objects.
Conclusions. Citizen science and machine learning are very useful techniques for the systematic search for Solar System objects in existing astronomy science data archives. This work describes a method for finding new asteroids in astronomical archives that span decades; it could be effectively applied to other datasets, increasing the overall sample of well-characterised small bodies in the Solar System and refining their ephemerides.
Key words: minor planets, asteroids: general / astronomical databases: miscellaneous / methods: data analysis / catalogs
Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/661/A85
© S. Kruk et al. 2022
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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