Volume 654, October 2021
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||06 October 2021|
A multiwavelength analysis of the spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk around WaOph 6
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy,
2 Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
3 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
5 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
6 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
7 Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
8 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
9 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
10 European Space Agency (ESA), ESA Office, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
11 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
12 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
13 Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
14 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
15 Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile
16 Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Astrophysics and Space Exploration (CIRAS), Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Estación Central, Chile
17 NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Accepted: 13 July 2021
Context. In recent years, protoplanetary disks with spiral structures have been detected in scattered light, millimeter continuum, and CO gas emission. The mechanisms causing these structures are still under debate. A popular scenario to drive the spiral arms is the one of a planet perturbing the material in the disk. However, if the disk is massive, gravitational instability isusually the favored explanation. Multiwavelength studies could be helpful to distinguish between the two scenarios. So far, only a handful of disks with spiral arms have been observed in both scattered light and millimeter continuum.
Aims. We aim to perform an in-depth characterization of the protoplanetary disk morphology around WaOph 6 analyzing data obtained at different wavelengths, as well as to investigate the origin of the spiral features in the disk.
Methods. We present the first near-infrared polarimetric observations of WaOph 6 obtained with SPHERE at the VLT and compare them to archival millimeter continuum ALMA observations. We traced the spiral features in both data sets and estimated the respective pitch angles. We discuss the different scenarios that can give rise to the spiral arms in WaOph 6. We tested the planetary perturber hypothesis by performing hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations to compare them with scattered light and millimeter continuum observations.
Results. We confirm that the spiral structure is present in our polarized scattered light H-band observationsof WaOph 6, making it the youngest disk with spiral arms detected at these wavelengths. From the comparison to the millimeter ALMA-DSHARP observations, we confirm that the disk is flared. We explore the possibility of a massive planetary perturber driving the spiral arms by running hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations, and we find that a planet of minimum 10 MJup outside of the observed spiral structure is able to drive spiral arms that resemble the ones in the observations. We derive detection limits from our SPHERE observations and get estimates of the planet’s contrast from different evolutionary models.
Conclusions. Up to now, no spiral arms had been observed in scattered light in disks around K and/or M stars with ages <1 Myr. Future observations of WaOph 6 could allow us to test theoretical predictions for planet evolutionary models, as well as give us more insightinto the mechanisms driving the spiral arms.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / stars: individual: WaOph 6 / techniques: polarimetric
© S. B. Brown-Sevilla et al. 2021
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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