Volume 653, September 2021
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||14 September 2021|
The GAPS Programme at TNG
XXXI. The WASP-33 system revisited with HARPS-N★
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera,
Via E. Bianchi 46,
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
3 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza dell’Ateneo Nuovo, 1, 20126 Milano, Italy
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
5 Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
6 Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025, Pino Torinese, Italy
8 Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
9 INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133, Roma, Italy
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
11 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento, 1, 90134, Palermo, Italy
12 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
13 Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778, Tautenburg, Germany
14 Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
15 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany
16 Fundación Galileo Galilei - INAF, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, 38712 Breña Baja, TF, Spain
17 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, TF, Spain
18 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206 La Laguna, TF, Spain
19 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131, Napoli, Italy
20 INAF – Osservatorio di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, 09047 Selargius, CA, Italy
21 Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei – Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
Accepted: 21 May 2021
Context. Giant planets in short-period orbits around bright stars represent optimal candidates for atmospheric and dynamical studies of exoplanetary systems.
Aims. We aim to analyse four transits of WASP-33b observed with the optical high-resolution HARPS-N spectrograph to confirm its nodal precession, study its atmosphere, and investigate the presence of star-planet interactions.
Methods. We extracted the mean line profiles of the spectra using the least-squares deconvolution method, and we analysed the Doppler shadow and the radial velocities. We also derived the transmission spectrum of the planet, correcting it for the stellar contamination due to rotation, centre-to-limb variations, and pulsations.
Results. We confirm the previously discovered nodal precession of WASP-33b, almost doubling the time coverage of the inclination and projected spin-orbit angle variation. We find that the projected obliquity reached a minimum in 2011, and we used this constraint to derive the geometry of the system, and in particular its obliquity at that epoch (ϵ = 113.99° ± 0.22°) and the inclination of the stellar spin axis (is = 90.11° ± 0.12°). We also derived the gravitational quadrupole moment of the star J2 = (6.73 ± 0.22) × 10−5, which we find to be in close agreement with the theoretically predicted value. Small systematics errors are computed by shifting the date of the minimum projected obliquity. We present detections of Hα and Hβ absorption in the atmosphere of the planet, with a contrast almost twice as small as that previously detected in the literature. We also find evidence for the presence of a pre-transit signal, which repeats in all four analysed transits and should thus be related to the planet. The most likely explanation lies in a possible excitation of a stellar pulsation mode by the presence of the planetary companion.
Conclusions. A future common analysis of all available datasets in the literature will help shed light on the possibility that the observed Balmer lines’ transit depth variations are related to stellar activity and pulsation, and to set constraints on the planetary temperature–pressure structure and thus on the energetics possibly driving atmospheric escape. A complete orbital phase coverage of WASP-33b with high-resolution spectroscopic (and spectro-polarimetric) observations could help us to understand the nature of the pre-transit signal.
Key words: techniques: spectroscopic / planetary systems / planets and satellites: atmospheres / stars: individual: WASP-33 / techniques: radial velocities
Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC in the frame of the program Global Architecture of the Planetary Systems (GAPS).
© ESO 2021
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.