Volume 652, August 2021
|Number of page(s)||25|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||17 August 2021|
Perturbers: SPHERE detection limits to planetary-mass companions in protoplanetary disks
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA),
2 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
3 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
4 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía, CNRS/INSU UMI 3386 and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
5 Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000, Grenoble, France
6 ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
7 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1, Canada
8 Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
9 Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Gesellschaftsstr. 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
10 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
11 Department of Physics, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 69364, Lyon, France
12 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
13 Université de Lyon, CRAL/CNRS, CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Saint-Genis-Laval, France
14 Observatoire de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
15 European Space Agency (ESA), ESA Office, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
16 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands
17 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
18 DOTA, ONERA, Université Paris Saclay, 91123 Palaiseau, France
Accepted: 4 March 2021
The detection of a wide range of substructures such as rings, cavities, and spirals has become a common outcome of high spatial resolution imaging of protoplanetary disks, both in the near-infrared scattered light and in the thermal millimetre continuum emission. The most frequent interpretation of their origin is the presence of planetary-mass companions perturbing the gas and dust distribution in the disk (perturbers), but so far the only bona fide detection has been the two giant planets carving the disk around PDS 70. Here, we present a sample of 15 protoplanetary disks showing substructures in SPHERE scattered-light images and a homogeneous derivation of planet detection limits in these systems. To obtain mass limits we rely on different post-formation luminosity models based on distinct formation conditions, which are critical in the first million years of evolution. We also estimate the mass of these perturbers through a Hill radius prescription and a comparison to ALMA data. Assuming that one single planet carves each substructure in scattered light, we find that more massive perturbers are needed to create gaps within cavities than rings, and that we might be close to a detection in the cavities of RX J1604.3-2130A, RX J1615.3-3255, Sz Cha, HD 135344B, and HD 34282. We reach typical mass limits in these cavities of 3–10 MJup. For planets in the gaps between rings, we find that the detection limits of SPHERE high-contrast imaging are about an order of magnitude away in mass, and that the gaps of PDS 66 and HD 97048 seem to be the most promising structures for planet searches. The proposed presence of massive planets causing spiral features in HD 135344B and HD 36112 are also within SPHERE’s reach assuming hot-start models. These results suggest that the current detection limits are able to detect hot-start planets in cavities, under the assumption that they are formed by a single perturber located at the centre of the cavity. More realistic planet mass constraints would help to clarify whether this is actually the case, which might indicate that perturbers are not the only way of creating substructures.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / planet-disk interactions / planets and satellites: detection / techniques: high angular resolution / techniques: image processing
© R. Asensio-Torres et al. 2021
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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