Volume 651, July 2021
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||01 July 2021|
ALMA small-scale features in the quiet Sun and active regions
Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2 University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch, Switzerland
3 Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
4 Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450, USA
5 Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
6 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
7 NAT – Núcleo de Astrofísica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul/Universidade Cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Accepted: 15 February 2021
Aims. The main aim of the present analysis is to decipher (i) the small-scale bright features in solar images of the quiet Sun and active regions obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and (ii) the ALMA correspondence of various known chromospheric structures visible in the Hα images of the Sun.
Methods. Small-scale ALMA bright features in the quiet Sun region were analyzed using single-dish ALMA observations (1.21 mm, 248 GHz) and in an active region using interferometric ALMA measurements (3 mm, 100 GHz). With the single-dish observations, a full-disk solar image is produced, while interferometric measurements enable the high-resolution reconstruction of part of the solar disk, including the active region. The selected quiet Sun and active regions are compared with the Hα (core and wing sum), EUV, and soft X-ray images and with the magnetograms.
Results. In the quiet Sun region, enhanced emission seen in the ALMA is almost always associated with a strong line-of-sight magnetic field. Four coronal bright points were identified, while other small-scale ALMA bright features are most likely associated with magnetic network elements and plages. In the active region, in 14 small-scale ALMA bright features randomly selected and compared with other images, we found five good candidates for coronal bright points, two for plages, and five for fibrils. Two unclear cases remain: a fibril or a jet, and a coronal bright point or a plage. A comparison of the Hα core image and the 3 mm ALMA image of the analyzed active region showed that the sunspot appears dark in both images (with a local ALMA radiation enhancement in sunspot umbra), the four plage areas are bright in both images and dark small Hα filaments are clearly recognized as dark structures of the same shape also in ALMA.
Key words: Sun: chromosphere / Sun: corona / Sun: radio radiation / Sun: magnetic fields / Sun: X-rays, gamma rays / Sun: UV radiation
© ESO 2021
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