Volume 650, June 2021
|Number of page(s)||13|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||28 June 2021|
The water-ice line as a birthplace of planets: implications of a species-dependent dust fragmentation threshold
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
Accepted: 10 April 2021
The thermodynamic structure of protoplanetary discs is determined by dust opacities, which depend on the size of the dust grains and their chemical composition. In the inner regions, the grain sizes are regulated by the level of turbulence (e.g. α viscosity) and by the dust fragmentation velocity that represents the maximal velocity that grains can have at a collision before they fragment. Here, we perform self-consistently calculated 2D hydrodynamical simulations that consider a full grain size distribution of dust grains with a transition in the dust fragmentation velocity at the water-ice line. This approach accounts for the results of previous particle collision laboratory experiments, in which silicate particles typically have a lower dust fragmentation velocity than water-ice particles. Furthermore, we probe the effects of variations in the water abundance, the dust-to-gas ratio, and the turbulence parameter on the disc structure. For the discs with a transition in the dust fragmentation velocity at the water-ice line, we find a narrow but striking zone of planetary outward migration, including for low viscosities. In addition, we find a bump in the radial pressure gradient profile that tends to be located slightly inside the ice line. Both of these features are present for all tested disc parameters. Thus, we conclude that the ice line can function both as a migration trap, which can extend the growth times of planets before they migrate to the inner edge of the protoplanetary disc, and as a pressure trap, where planetesimal formation can be initiated or enhanced.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / planets and satellites: formation / hydrodynamics / opacity
© J. Müller et al. 2021
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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