Volume 648, April 2021
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||09 April 2021|
Distribution of ionized, atomic, and PDR gas around S 1 in ρ Ophiuchus
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,
Homi Bhabha Road,
2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
3 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
4 Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
Accepted: 17 February 2021
The early B star S 1 in the ρ Ophiuchus cloud excites an H II region and illuminates a large egg-shaped photon-dominated (PDR) cavity. The PDR is restricted to the west and southwest by the dense molecular ρ Oph A ridge, expanding more freely into the diffuse low-density cloud to the northeast. We analyzed new SOFIA GREAT, GMRT, and APEX data together with archival data from Herschel/PACS and JCMT/HARP to study the properties of the photo-irradiated ionized and neutral gas in this region. The tracers include [C II] at 158 μm, [O I] at 63 and 145 μm, the J = 6–5 transitions of CO and 13CO, HCO+ (4–3), the radio continuum at 610 and 1420 MHz, and H I at 21 cm. The PDR emission is strongly redshifted to the southeast of the nebula, and primarily blueshifted on the northwestern side. The [C II] and [O I]63 spectra are strongly self-absorbed over most of the PDR. By using the optically thin counterparts, [13C II] and [O I]145 respectively, we conclude that the self-absorption is dominated by the warm (>80 K) foreground PDR gas and not by the surrounding cold molecular cloud. We estimate the column densities of C+ and O0 of the PDR to be ~3 × 1018 and ~2 × 1019 cm−2, respectively. Comparison of stellar far-ultraviolet flux and reprocessed infrared radiation suggest enhanced clumpiness of the gas to the northwest. Analysis of the emission from the PDR gas suggests the presence of at least three density components consisting of high-density (106 cm−3) clumps, medium-density (104 cm−3) and diffuse (103 cm−3) interclump medium. The medium-density component primarily contributes to the thermal pressure of the PDR gas, which is in pressure equilibrium with the molecular cloud to the west. Emission velocities in the region suggest that the PDR is tilted and somewhat warped, with the southeastern side of the cavity being denser at the front and the northwestern side being denser at the rear.
Key words: ISM: clouds / ISM: lines and bands / photon-dominated region / ISM: individual objects: ρ Oph / submillimeter: ISM / HII regions
© ESO 2021
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