Volume 646, February 2021
|Number of page(s)||28|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||05 February 2021|
H II regions and high-mass starless clump candidates
II. Fragmentation and induced star formation at ~0.025 pc scale: an ALMA continuum study
Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM,
2 Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France
3 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), 38000 Grenoble, France
4 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin-D’Hères, France
5 Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, PR China
6 CASSACA, China-Chile Joint Center for Astronomy, Camino El Observatorio #1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
7 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n, Distrito Universitario, 160-C, Chile
8 Departamento de Astronomía de Chile, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
9 National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Pasteura 7, 02-093 Warszawa, Poland
10 Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, PR China
11 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012, PR China
12 Institute for Astrophysical Research, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston University Boston, MA 02215, USA
13 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
Accepted: 24 November 2020
Context. The ionization feedback from H II regions modifies the properties of high-mass starless clumps (HMSCs, of several hundred to a few thousand solar masses with a typical size of 0.1–1 pc), such as dust temperature and turbulence, on the clump scale. The question of whether the presence of H II regions modifies the core-scale (~0.025 pc) fragmentation and star formation in HMSCs remains to be explored.
Aims. We aim to investigate the difference of 0.025 pc-scale fragmentation between candidate HMSCs that are strongly impacted by H II regions and less disturbed ones. We also search for evidence of mass shaping and induced star formation in the impacted candidate HMSCs.
Methods. Using the ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, with a typical angular resolution of 1.3′′, we imaged eight candidate HMSCs, including four impacted by H II regions and another four situated in the quiet environment. The less-impacted candidate HMSCs are selected on the basis of their similar mass and distance compared to the impacted ones to avoid any possible bias linked to these parameters. We carried out a comparison between the two types of candidate HMSCs. We used multi-wavelength data to analyze the interaction between H II regions and the impacted candidate HMSCs.
Results. A total of 51 cores were detected in eight clumps, with three to nine cores for each clump. Within our limited sample, we did not find a clear difference in the ~0.025 pc-scale fragmentation between impacted and non-impacted candidate HMSCs, even though H II regions seem to affect the spatial distribution of the fragmented cores. Both types of candidate HMSCs present a thermal fragmentation with two-level hierarchical features at the clump thermal Jeans length λJ,clumpth and 0.3λJ,clumpth. The ALMA emission morphology of the impacted candidate HMSCs AGAL010.214-00.306 and AGAL018.931-00.029 sheds light on the capacities of H II regions to shape gas and dust in their surroundings and possibly to trigger star formation at ~0.025 pc-scale in candidate HMSCs.
Conclusions. The fragmentation at ~0.025 pc scale for both types of candidate HMSCs is likely to be thermal-dominant, meanwhile H II regions probably have the capacity to assist in the formation of dense structures in the impacted candidate HMSCs. Future ALMA imaging surveys covering a large number of impacted candidate HMSCs with high turbulence levels are needed to confirm the trend of fragmentation indicated in this study.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: massive / HII regions / ISM: structure / submillimeter: ISM / techniques: interferometric
© S. Zhang et al. 2021
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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