Volume 645, January 2021
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||22 January 2021|
The search for extratidal star candidates around Galactic globular clusters NGC 2808, NGC 6266, and NGC 6397 with Gaia DR2 astrometry⋆
European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, 7630000 Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Camila.Navarrete@eso.org
2 Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
3 Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago, Chile
4 Instituto de Astronomía y Ciencias Planetarias, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó, Chile
5 Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
6 Vatican Observatory, 00120 Vatican City State, Italy
7 Instituto Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Básicas (ICB), CONICET-UNCUYO, Padre J. Contreras 1300, M5502JMA Mendoza, Argentina
8 Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Godoy Cruz 2290, C1425FQB Buenos Aires, Argentina
9 Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, Université Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France
Accepted: 20 November 2020
Context. Extratidal stars are stellar bodies that end up outside the tidal radius of a cluster as a result of internal processes or external forces acting upon it. The presence and spatial distribution of these stars can give us insights into the past evolution of a cluster inside our Galaxy.
Aims. Previous works suggest that globular clusters, when explored in detail, show evidence of extratidal stars. We aim to search for possible extratidal stars in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 2808, and NGC 6266 using the photometry and proper motion measurements from Gaia DR2 database.
Methods. The extratidal stars for the clusters were selected on the basis of: their distance from the cluster center, similarity in their proper motions to the cluster population, and their position on the color-magnitude diagram of the clusters. Each cluster was explored in an annulus disk from the tidal radius up to five times the tidal radii. The significance level of the number of selected extratidal stars was determined on the basis of the distribution of Milky Way stars according to the Besançon Galaxy model and Gaia data. To understand the observed extratidal features, the orbits of the clusters were also determined using GravPot16.
Results. Finally, 120, 126, and 107 extratidal candidate stars were found lying outside the tidal radius of the globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 2808, and NGC 6266, respectively. 70%, 25.4%, and 72.9% of the extratidal stars found are located outside the Jacobi radius of NGC 6397, NGC 2808, and NGC 6266, respectively. The spatial distribution of the extratidal stars belonging to NGC 6397 appears S-like, extending along the curved leading and trailing arms. NGC 2808 has an overdensity of stars in the trailing part of the cluster and NGC 6266 seems to have overdensities of extratidal stars in its eastern and northern sides.
Conclusions. Proper motions and color-magnitude diagrams can be used to identify extratidal candidate stars around GCs. Nonetheless, depending on how different the kinematics and stellar populations of a cluster are compared to the Milky Way field, the fraction of contamination can be larger. All three clusters are found to have extratidal stars outside their tidal radii. For NGC 6397 and NGC 2808, these stars may be the result of a combined effect of the disc shocks and tidal disruptions. For NGC 6266, the distribution of extratidal stars is symmetrical around it, most likely indicating that the cluster has an extended stellar envelope.
Key words: globular clusters: general / globular clusters: individual: NGC 2808 / globular clusters: individual: NGC 6397 / globular clusters: individual: NGC 6266
A table of the candidates is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A116
© ESO 2021
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