Volume 644, December 2020
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||03 December 2020|
Towards a consistent framework of comparing galaxy mergers in observations and simulations
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
2 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
3 National Centre for Nuclear Research, Ul. Pasteura 7, 02-093 Warszawa, Poland
4 Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 72-3, 58089 Morelia, Mexico
Accepted: 24 August 2020
Aims. We aim to perform consistent comparisons between observations and simulations on the mass dependence of the galaxy major merger fraction at low redshift over an unprecedentedly wide range of stellar masses (∼109 to 1012 M⊙).
Methods. We first carry out forward modelling of ideal synthetic images of major mergers and non-mergers selected from the Next Generation Illustris Simulations (IllustrisTNG) to include major observational effects. We then train deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using realistic mock observations of galaxy samples from the simulations. Subsequently, we apply the trained CNNs to real the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) images of galaxies selected from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Based on the major merger samples, which are detected in a consistent manner in the observations and simulations, we determine the dependence of major merger fraction on stellar mass at z ∼ 0.15 and make comparisons between the two.
Results. The detected major merger fraction in the GAMA/KiDS observations has a fairly mild decreasing trend with increasing stellar mass over the mass range 109 M⊙ < M* < 1011.5 M⊙. There is good agreement in the mass dependence of the major merger fraction in the GAMA/KiDS observations and the IllustrisTNG simulations over 109.5 M⊙ < M* < 1010.5 M⊙. However, the observations and the simulations show some differences at M* > 1010.5 M⊙, possibly due to the supermassive blackhole feedback in its low-accretion state in the simulations which causes a sharp transition in the quenched fractions at this mass scale. The discrepancy could also be due to the relatively small volume of the simulations and/or differences in how stellar masses are measured in simulations and observations.
Key words: galaxies: interactions / galaxies: evolution / galaxies: statistics / galaxies: general / galaxies: structure
© ESO 2020
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