Volume 643, November 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||18 November 2020|
The Gaia-ESO survey: 3D NLTE abundances in the open cluster NGC 2420 suggest atomic diffusion and turbulent mixing are at the origin of chemical abundance variations⋆
Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation
3 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
4 Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Spain
5 Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Carrer Gran Capita 2, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
6 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, 5030 Casilla, Valparaíso, Chile
7 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
8 INAF – Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
9 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
11 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
Accepted: 27 August 2020
Context. Atomic diffusion and mixing processes in stellar interiors influence the structure and the surface composition of stars. Some of these processes cannot yet be modelled from the first principles, and they require calibrations. This limits their applicability in stellar models used for studies of stellar populations and Galactic evolution.
Aims. Our main goal is to put constraints on the stellar structure and evolution models using new refined measurements of the chemical composition in stars of a Galactic open cluster.
Methods. We used medium-resolution, 19 200 ≤ R ≤ 21 500, optical spectra of stars in the open cluster NGC 2420 obtained within the Gaia-ESO survey. The sample covers all evolutionary stages from the main sequence to the red giant branch. Stellar parameters were derived using a combined Bayesian analysis of spectra, 2MASS photometry, and astrometric data from Gaia DR2. The abundances of Mg, Ca, Fe, and Li were determined from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) synthetic spectra, which were computed using one-dimensional (1D) and averaged three-dimensional (3D) model atmospheres. We compare our results with a grid of Code d’Evolution Stellaire Adaptatif et Modulaire (CESTAM) stellar evolution models, which include atomic diffusion, turbulent, and rotational mixing.
Results. We find prominent evolutionary trends in the abundances of Fe, Ca, Mg, and Li with the mass of the stars in the cluster. Furthermore, Fe, Mg, and Ca show a depletion at the cluster turn-off, but the abundances gradually increase and flatten near the base of the red giant branch. The abundance trend for Li displays a signature of rotational mixing on the main sequence and abrupt depletion on the sub-giant branch, which is caused by advection of Li-poor material to the surface. The analysis of abundances combined with the CESTAM model predictions allows us to place limits on the parameter space of the models and to constrain the zone in the stellar interior, where turbulent mixing takes place.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: evolution / open clusters and associations: general / radiative transfer
© E. Semenova et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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