Volume 642, October 2020
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||15 October 2020|
The GRAVITY young stellar object survey
III. The dusty disk of RY Lup★
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG,
2 Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, D02, XF86 Dublin, Ireland
3 School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
4 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
5 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
6 Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85741 Garching bei München, Germany
7 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
8 CENTRA, Centro de Astrofísica e Gravitação, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa, Portugal
9 Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
10 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
11 Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70264, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
12 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
13 Universidade de Lisboa – Faculdade de Ciências, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
14 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
15 Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
Accepted: 10 August 2020
Context. Studies of the dust distribution, composition, and evolution of protoplanetary disks provide clues for understanding planet formation. However, little is known about the innermost regions of disks where telluric planets are expected to form.
Aims. We aim constrain the geometry of the inner disk of the T Tauri star RY Lup by combining spectro-photometric data and interferometric observations in the near-infrared (NIR) collected at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We use PIONIER data from the ESO archive and GRAVITY data that were obtained in June 2017 with the four 8m telescopes.
Methods. We use a parametric disk model and the 3D radiative transfer code MCFOST to reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) and match the interferometric observations. MCFOST produces synthetic SEDs and intensity maps at different wavelengths from which we compute the modeled interferometric visibilities and closure phases through Fourier transform.
Results. To match the SED from the blue to the millimetric range, our model requires a stellar luminosity of 2.5 L⊙, higher than any previously determined values. Such a high value is needed to accommodate the circumstellar extinction caused by the highly inclined disk, which has been neglected in previous studies. While using an effective temperature of 4800 K determined through high-resolution spectroscopy, we derive a stellar radius of 2.29 R⊙. These revised fundamental parameters, when combined with the mass estimates available (in the range 1.3–1.5 M⊙), lead to an age of 0.5–2.0 Ma for RY Lup, in better agreement with the age of the Lupus association than previous determinations. Our disk model (that has a transition disk geometry) nicely reproduces the interferometric GRAVITY data and is in good agreement with the PIONIER ones. We derive an inner rim location at 0.12 au from the central star. This model corresponds to an inclination of the inner disk of 50°, which is in mild tension with previous determinations of a more inclined outer disk from SPHERE (70° in NIR) and ALMA (67 ± 5°) images, but consistent with the inclination determination from the ALMA CO spectra (55 ± 5°). Increasing the inclination of the inner disk to 70° leads to a higher line-of-sight extinction and therefore requires a higher stellar luminosity of 4.65 L⊙ to match the observed flux levels. This luminosity would translate to a stellar radius of 3.13 R⊙, leading to an age of 2–3 Ma, and a stellarmass of about 2 M⊙, in disagreement with the observed dynamical mass estimate of 1.3–1.5 M⊙. Critically, this high-inclination inner disk model also fails to reproduce the visibilities observed with GRAVITY.
Conclusions. The inner dust disk, as traced by the GRAVITY data, is located at a radius in agreement with the dust sublimation radius. An ambiguity remains regarding the respective orientations of the inner and outer disk, coplanar and mildly misaligned, respectively.As our datasets are not contemporary and the star is strongly variable, a deeper investigation will require a dedicated multi-technique observing campaign.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / stars: individual: RY Lup / circumstellar matter / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be / stars: low-mass
© GRAVITY Collaboration 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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