Volume 642, October 2020
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||15 October 2020|
Observations of edge-on protoplanetary disks with ALMA
I. Results from continuum data★
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG,
2 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
3 Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago, Chile
4 Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
5 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
6 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
7 Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA) and School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia
8 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
9 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
10 AIM Paris-Saclay Département d’Astrophysique, CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
11 School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Accepted: 5 August 2020
Aims. We aim to study vertical settling and radial drift of dust in protoplanetary disks from a different perspective: an edge-on view. An estimation of the amplitude of settling and drift is highly relevant to understanding planet formation.
Methods. We analyze a sample of 12 HST-selected edge-on protoplanetary disks (i.e., seen with high inclinations) for which the vertical extent of the emission layers can be constrained directly. We present ALMA high angular resolution continuum images (~0.1′′) of these disks at two wavelengths, 0.89 and 2.06 mm (respectively ALMA bands 7 and 4), supplemented with archival band 6 data (1.33 mm) where available.
Results. Several sources show constant brightness profiles along their major axis with a steep drop at the outer edges. Two disks have central holes with additional compact continuum emission at the location of the central star. For most sources, the millimeter continuum emission is more compact than the scattered light, both in the vertical and radial directions. Six sources are resolved along their minor axis in at least one millimetric band, providing direct information on the vertical distribution of the millimeter grains. For the second largest disk of the sample, Tau 042021, the significant difference in vertical extent between band 7 and band 4 suggests efficient size-selective vertical settling of large grains. Furthermore, the only Class I object in our sample shows evidence of flaring in the millimeter. Along the major axis, all disks are well resolved. Four of them are larger in band 7 than in band 4 in the radial direction, and three have a similar radial extent in all bands. These three disks are also the ones with the sharpest apparent edges (between 80% and 20% of the peak flux, Δr∕r ~ 0.3), and two of them are binaries. For all disks, we also derive the millimeter brightness temperature and spectral index maps. We find that all edge-on disks in our sample are likely optically thick and that the dust emission reveals low brightness temperatures in most cases (brightness temperatures ≤10 K). The integrated spectral indices are similar to those of disks at lower inclination.
Conclusions. The comparison of a generic radiative transfer disk model with our data shows that at least three disks are consistent with a small millimeter dust scale height, of a few au (measured at r = 100 au). This is in contrast with the more classical value of hg ~ 10 au derived from scattered light images and from gas line measurements. These results confirm, by direct observations, that large (millimeter) grains are subject to significant vertical settling in protoplanetary disks.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / stars: formation / circumstellar matter / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
The reduced ALMA images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/642/A164
© M. Villenave et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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