Volume 642, October 2020
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||09 October 2020|
X-ray study of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3411-3412 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
3 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
Accepted: 29 July 2020
Context. Previous Chandra observations of the Abell 3411-3412 merging galaxy cluster system revealed an outbound bullet-like sub-cluster in the northern part and many surface brightness edges at the southern periphery, where multiple diffuse sources are also reported from radio observations. Notably, a southeastern radio relic associated with fossil plasma from a radio galaxy and with a detected X-ray edge provides direct evidence of shock re-acceleration. The properties of the reported surface brightness features have yet to be constrained from a thermodynamic viewpoint.
Aims. We use the XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of Abell 3411-3412 to reveal the thermodynamical nature of the previously reported re-acceleration site and other X-ray surface brightness edges. We also aim to investigate the temperature profile in the low-density outskirts with Suzaku data.
Methods. We performed both imaging and spectral analysis to measure the density jump and the temperature jump across multiple known X-ray surface brightness discontinuities. We present a new method to calibrate the vignetting function and spectral model of the XMM-Newton soft proton background. Archival Chandra, Suzaku, and ROSAT data are used to estimate the cosmic X-ray background and Galactic foreground levels with improved accuracy compared to standard blank sky spectra.
Results. At the southeastern edge, temperature jumps revealed by both XMM-Newton and Suzaku point to a ℳ ∼ 1.2 shock, which agrees with the previous result from surface brightness fits with Chandra. The low Mach number supports the re-acceleration scenario at this shock front. The southern edge shows a more complex scenario, where a shock and the presence of stripped cold material may coincide. There is no evidence for a bow shock in front of the northwestern “bullet” sub-cluster. The Suzaku temperature profiles in the southern low-density regions are marginally higher than the typical relaxed cluster temperature profile. The measured value kT500 = 4.84 ± 0.04 ± 0.19 keV with XMM-Newton and kT500 = 5.17 ± 0.07 ± 0.13 keV with Suzaku are significantly lower than previously inferred from Chandra.
Key words: methods: data analysis / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 3411 / shock waves
© ESO 2018
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