Volume 641, September 2020
|Number of page(s)||23|
|Published online||01 September 2020|
Fully compressible simulations of waves and core convection in main-sequence stars
Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
2 School of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
3 X Computational Physics (XCP) Division and Center for Theoretical Astrophysics (CTA), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
4 Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
5 Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
6 Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
7 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 3 July 2020
Context. Recent, nonlinear simulations of wave generation and propagation in full-star models have been carried out in the anelastic approximation using spectral methods. Although it makes long time steps possible, this approach excludes the physics of sound waves completely and requires rather high artificial viscosity and thermal diffusivity for numerical stability. A direct comparison with observations is thus limited.
Aims. We explore the capabilities of our compressible multidimensional Seven-League Hydro (SLH) code to simulate stellar oscillations.
Methods. We compare some fundamental properties of internal gravity and pressure waves in 2D SLH simulations to linear wave theory using two test cases: (1) an interval gravity wave packet in the Boussinesq limit and (2) a realistic 3 M⊙ stellar model with a convective core and a radiative envelope. Oscillation properties of the stellar model are also discussed in the context of observations.
Results. Our tests show that specialized low-Mach techniques are necessary when simulating oscillations in stellar interiors. Basic properties of internal gravity and pressure waves in our simulations are in good agreement with linear wave theory. As compared to anelastic simulations of the same stellar model, we can follow internal gravity waves of much lower frequencies. The temporal frequency spectra of velocity and temperature are flat and compatible with the observed spectra of massive stars.
Conclusion. The low-Mach compressible approach to hydrodynamical simulations of stellar oscillations is promising. Our simulations are less dissipative and require less luminosity boosting than comparable spectral simulations. The fully-compressible approach allows for the coupling of gravity and pressure waves in the outer convective envelopes of evolved stars to be studied in the future.
Key words: hydrodynamics / methods: numerical / stars: interiors / convection / waves
© ESO 2020
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