Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||12 August 2020|
Influence of grain growth on the thermal structure of protoplanetary discs
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
2 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
Accepted: 26 May 2020
The thermal structure of a protoplanetary disc is regulated by the opacity that dust grains provide. However, previous works have often considered simplified prescriptions for the dust opacity in hydrodynamical disc simulations, for example, by considering only a single particle size. In the present work, we perform 2D hydrodynamical simulations of protoplanetary discs where the opacity is self-consistently calculated for the dust population, taking into account the particle size, composition, and abundance. We first compared simulations utilizing single grain sizes to two different multi-grain size distributions at different levels of turbulence strengths, parameterized through the α-viscosity, and different gas surface densities. Assuming a single dust size leads to inaccurate calculations of the thermal structure of discs, because the grain size dominating the opacity increases with orbital radius. Overall the two grain size distributions, one limited by fragmentation only and the other determined from a more complete fragmentation-coagulation equilibrium, give comparable results for the thermal structure. We find that both grain size distributions give less steep opacity gradients that result in less steep aspect ratio gradients, in comparison to discs with only micrometer-sized dust. Moreover, in the discs with a grain size distribution, the innermost (<5 AU) outward migration region is removed and planets embedded in such discs experience lower migration rates. We also investigated the dependency of the water iceline position on the alpha-viscosity (α), the initial gas surface density (Σg,0) at 1 AU and the dust-to-gas ratio (fDG) and find rice ∝ α0.61Σg,00.8fDG0.37 independently of the distribution used in the disc. The inclusion of the feedback loop between grain growth, opacities, and disc thermodynamics allows for more self-consistent simulations of accretion discs and planet formation.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / planets and satellites: formation / circumstellar matter / hydrodynamics / turbulence
© S. Savvidou et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.