Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||07 July 2020|
The GAPS programme at TNG
XXII. The GIARPS view of the extended helium atmosphere of HD 189733 b accounting for stellar activity★
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino,
via Pietro Giuria 1,
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples, Italy
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (LC), Italy
5 Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
6 Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
7 Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
8 National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
9 Fundación G. Galilei – INAF (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), Rambla J. A. Fernández Pérez 7, 38712 Breña Baja (La Palma), Spain
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
11 Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
12 Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
13 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
14 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
15 Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
16 Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
17 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
18 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
19 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento, 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
20 INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
21 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna (Tenerife), Spain
22 Departamento de Astrofísica, Univ. de La Laguna, Av. del Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, 38205 La Laguna (Tenerife), Spain
23 Astronomy Department, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Van Vleck Observatory 101, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA
24 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
25 INAF – Osservatorio di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, 09047 Selargius, CA, Italy
26 Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universit‘a di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
27 Institut für Astrophysik, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Accepted: 11 May 2020
Context. Exoplanets orbiting very close to their parent star are strongly irradiated. This can lead the upper atmospheric layers to expand and evaporate into space. The metastable helium (He I) triplet at 1083.3 nm has recently been shown to be a powerful diagnostic to probe extended and escaping exoplanetary atmospheres.
Aims. We perform high-resolution transmission spectroscopy of the transiting hot Jupiter HD 189733 b with the GIARPS (GIANO-B + HARPS-N) observing mode of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, taking advantage of the simultaneous optical+near infrared spectral coverage to detect He I in the planet’s extended atmosphere and to gauge the impact of stellar magnetic activity on the planetary absorption signal.
Methods. Observations were performed during five transit events of HD 189733 b. By comparison of the in-transit and out-of-transit GIANO-B observations, we computed high-resolution transmission spectra. We then used them to perform equivalent width measurements and carry out light-curves analyses in order to consistently gauge the excess in-transit absorption in correspondence with the He I triplet.
Results. We spectrally resolve the He I triplet and detect an absorption signal during all five transits. The mean in-transit absorption depth amounts to 0.75 ± 0.03% (25σ) in the core of the strongest helium triplet component. We detect night-to-night variations in the He I absorption signal likely due to the transit events occurring in the presence of stellar surface inhomogeneities. We evaluate the impact of stellar-activity pseudo-signals on the true planetary absorption using a comparative analysis of the He I 1083.3 nm (in the near-infrared) and the Hα (in the visible) lines. Using a 3D atmospheric code, we interpret the time series of the He I absorption lines in the three nights not affected by stellar contamination, which exhibit a mean in-transit absorption depth of 0.77 ± 0.04% (19σ) in full agreement with the one derived from the full dataset. In agreement with previous results, our simulations suggest that the helium layers only fill part of the Roche lobe. Observations can be explained with a thermosphere heated to ~12 000 K, expanding up to ~1.2 planetary radii, and losing ~1 g s−1 of metastable helium.
Conclusions. Our results reinforce the importance of simultaneous optical plus near infrared monitoring when performing high-resolution transmission spectroscopy of the extended and escaping atmospheres of hot planets in the presence of stellar activity.
Key words: planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: fundamental parameters / techniques: spectroscopic / planets and satellites: individual: HD 189733 b / stars: activity
© ESO 2020
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