Volume 638, June 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||25 June 2020|
Tidal evolution of galaxies in the most massive cluster of IllustrisTNG-100
Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
Accepted: 4 May 2020
We study the tidal evolution of galaxies in the most massive cluster of the IllustrisTNG-100 simulation. For the purpose of this work, we selected 112 galaxies with the largest stellar masses at present and followed their properties over time. Using their orbital history, we divided the sample into unevolved (infalling), weakly evolved (with one pericenter passage), and strongly evolved (with multiple pericenters). The samples are clearly separated by the value of the integrated tidal force from the cluster the galaxies experienced during their entire evolution and their properties depend strongly on this quantity. As a result of tidal stripping, the galaxies of the weakly evolved sample lost between 10 and 80% of their dark mass and less than 10% of stars, while those in the strongly evolved one lost more than 70% of dark mass and between 10 and 55% of stellar mass, and are significantly less, or not at all dark-matter dominated. While 33% of the infalling galaxies do not contain any gas, this fraction increases to 67% for the weakly evolved sample, and to 100% for the strongly evolved sample. The strongly evolved galaxies lose their gas earlier and faster (within 2–6 Gyr), but the process can take up to 4 Gyr from the first pericenter passage. These galaxies are redder and more metal rich, and at redshift z = 0.5, the population of galaxies in the cluster becomes predominantly red. As a result of tidal stirring, the morphology of the galaxies evolves from oblate to prolate and their rotation is diminished, thus the morphology-density relation is reproduced in the simulated cluster. The strongly evolved sample contains at least six convincing examples of tidally induced bars and six more galaxies that had their bars enhanced by their interaction with the cluster.
Key words: galaxies: evolution / galaxies: interactions / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / galaxies: structure / galaxies: clusters: general
© ESO 2020
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