Volume 637, May 2020
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||12 May 2020|
H II regions and high-mass starless clump candidates
Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNES, LAM,
2 Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France
3 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012, PR China
4 CASSACA, China-Chile Joint Center for Astronomy, Camino El Observatorio #1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
5 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n, Distrito Universitario, 160-C, Chile
6 National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Pasteura 7, 02-093, Warszawa, Poland
7 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
8 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
9 Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, PR China
Accepted: 24 February 2020
Context. The role of ionization feedback on high-mass (>8 M⊙) star formation is still highly debated. Questions remain concerning the presence of nearby H II regions changes the properties of early high-mass star formation and whether H II regions promote or inhibit the formation of high-mass stars.
Aims. To characterize the role of H II regions on the formation of high-mass stars, we study the properties of a sample of candidates high-mass starless clumps (HMSCs), of which about 90% have masses larger than 100 M⊙. These high-mass objects probably represent the earliest stages of high-mass star formation; we search if (and how) their properties are modified by the presence of an H II region.
Methods. We took advantage of the recently published catalog of HMSC candidates. By cross matching the HMSCs and H II regions, we classified HMSCs into three categories: (1) the HMSCs associated with H II regions both in the position in the projected plane of the sky and in velocity; (2) HMSCs associated in the plane of the sky, but not in velocity; and (3) HMSCs far away from any H II regions in the projected sky plane. We carried out comparisons between associated and nonassociated HMSCs based on statistical analyses of multiwavelength data from infrared to radio.
Results. We show that there are systematic differences of the properties of HMSCs in different environments. Statistical analyses suggest that HMSCs associated with H II regions are warmer, more luminous, more centrally-peaked and turbulent. We also clearly show, for the first time, that the ratio of bolometric luminosity to envelope mass of HMSCs (L∕M) could not be a reliable evolutionary probe for early massive star formation due to the external heating effects of the H II regions.
Conclusions. We show HMSCs associated with H II regions present statistically significant differences from HMSCs far away from H II regions, especially for dust temperature and L∕M. More centrally peaked and turbulent properties of HMSCs associated with H II regions may promote the formation of high-mass stars by limiting fragmentation. High-resolution interferometric surveys toward HMSCs are crucial to reveal how H II regions impact the star formation process inside HMSCs.
Key words: stars: formation / H II regions / submillimeter: ISM
Full Table 4 and additional data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/637/A40
© S. Zhang et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.