Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||05 March 2020|
Impact of a companion and of chromospheric emission on the shape of chromosome maps for globular clusters
LUPM, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France
2 Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
3 IRAP, UMR 5277, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
4 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
5 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
Accepted: 10 January 2020
Context. Globular clusters (GCs) host multiple populations of stars that are well-separated in a photometric diagram – the chromosome map – built from specific Hubble Space Telescope (HST) filters. Stars from different populations feature at various locations on this diagram due to peculiar chemical compositions. Stars of the first population, with field star-like abundances, sometimes show an unexpected extended distribution in the chromosome map.
Aims. We aim to investigate the role of binaries and chromospheric emission on HST photometry of globular clusters’ stars. We quantify their respective effects on the position of stars in the chromosome map, especially among the first population.
Methods. We computed atmosphere models and synthetic spectra for stars of different chemical compositions, based on isochrones produced by stellar evolution calculations with abundance variations representative of first and second populations in GCs. From this we built synthetic chromosome maps for a mixture of stars of different chemical compositions. We subsequently replaced a fraction of stars with binaries, or stars with chromospheric emission, using synthetic spectroscopy. We studied how the position of stars is affected in the chromosome map.
Results. Binaries can, in principle, explain the extension of the first population in the chromosome map. However, we find that given the binary fraction reported for GCs, the density of stars in the extended part is too small. Another difficulty of the binary explanation is that the shape of the distribution of the first population in the chromosome map is different in clusters with similar binary fractions. Also, the decrease of the binary fraction with radius is not mirrored in the shape of the chromosome map. Additionally, we find that the contribution of chromospheric emission lines to the HST photometry is too small to have an observable impact on the shape of the chromosome map. Continuum chromospheric emission has an effect qualitatively similar to binaries.
Conclusions. We conclude that binaries do have an impact on the morphology of the chromosome map of GCs, but they are unlikely to explain entirely the shape of the extended distribution of the first population stars. Uncertainties in the properties of continuum chromospheric emission of stars in GCs prevent any quantitative conclusion. Therefore, the origin of the extended first population remains unexplained.
Key words: globular clusters: general / binaries: general / stars: chromospheres
© F. Martins et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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