Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||31 March 2020|
Detection of Na, K, and Hα absorption in the atmosphere of WASP-52b using ESPRESSO★
Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, Spain
4 Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
5 Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Accepted: 17 February 2020
WASP-52b is a low-density hot Jupiter orbiting a moderately active K2V star. Previous low-resolution studies have revealed a cloudy atmosphere and found atomic Na above the cloud deck. Here we report on the detection of excess absorption at the Na doublet, the Hα line, and the K D1 line. We derived a high-resolution transmission spectrum based on three transits of WASP-52b, observed with the ultra-stable, high-resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO at the Very Large Telescope array. We measured a line contrast of 1.09 ± 0.16% for Na D1, 1.31 ± 0.13% for Na D2, 0.86 ± 0.13% for Hα, and 0.46 ± 0.13% for K D1, with a line FWHM range of 11–22 km s−1. We also found that the velocity shift of these detected lines during the transit is consistent with the planet’s orbital motion, thus confirming their planetary origin. We did not observe any significant net blueshift or redshift that could be attributed to planetary winds. We used activity indicator lines as control but found no excess absorption. However, we did notice signatures arising from the Center-to-Limb variation (CLV) and the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect at these control lines. This highlights the importance of the CLV + RM correction in correctly deriving the transmission spectrum, which, if not corrected, could resemble or cancel out planetary absorption in certain cases. WASP-52b is the second non-ultra-hot Jupiter to show excess Hα absorption after HD 189733b. Future observations targeting non-ultra-hot Jupiters that show Hα could help reveal the relation between stellar activity and the heating processes in the planetary upper atmosphere.
Key words: planetary systems / planets and satellites: individual: WASP-52b / planets and satellites: atmospheres / techniques: spectroscopic
© ESO 2020
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