Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||13|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||01 April 2020|
Spatial distribution of exoplanet candidates based on Kepler and Gaia data
Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences,
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 5 February 2020
Context. Surveying the spatial distribution of exoplanets in the Galaxy is important for improving our understanding of planet formation and evolution.
Aims. We aim to determine the spatial gradients of exoplanet occurrence in the Solar neighbourhood and in the vicinity of open clusters.
Methods. We combined Kepler and Gaia DR2 data for this purpose, splitting the volume sampled by the Kepler mission into certain spatial bins. We determined an uncorrected and bias-corrected exoplanet frequency and metallicity for each bin.
Results. There is a clear drop in the uncorrected exoplanet frequency with distance for F-type stars (mainly for smaller planets), a decline with increasing distance along the Galactic longitude l = 90°, and a drop with height above the Galactic plane. We find that the metallicity behaviour cannot be the reason for the drop of the exoplanet frequency around F stars with increasing distance. This might have only contributed to the drop in uncorrected exoplanet frequency with the height above the Galactic plane. We argue that the above-mentioned gradients of uncorrected exoplanet frequency are a manifestation of a single bias of undetected smaller planets around fainter stars. When we correct for observational biases, most of these gradients in exoplanet frequency become statistically insignificant. Only a slight decline of the planet occurrence with distance for F stars remains significant at the 3σ level. Apart from that, the spatial distribution of exoplanets in the Kepler field of view is compatible with a homogeneous one. At the same time, we do not find a significant change in the exoplanet frequency with increasing distance from open clusters. In terms of byproducts, we identified six exoplanet host star candidates that are members of open clusters. Four of them are in the NGC 6811 (KIC 9655005, KIC 9533489, Kepler-66, Kepler-67) and two belong to NGC 6866 (KIC 8396288, KIC 8331612). Two out of the six had already been known to be cluster members.
Key words: planetary systems / stars: formation / stars: rotation / stars: statistics / solar neighborhood
© ESO 2020
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