Volume 633, January 2020
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||03 January 2020|
The long-term enhanced brightness of the magnetar 1E 1547.0–5408
Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
2 Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3 Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares, 07122, Spain
4 Institut Aplicacions Computationals (IAC3) Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares 07122, Spain
5 Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
6 Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS Pavia, piazza della Vittoria 15, 27100 Pavia, Italy
7 INAF – Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Milano, via A. Corti 12, 20133 Milano, Italy
8 Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d’Alacant, Ap. Correus 99, 03080 Alacant, Spain
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Emilio Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (LC), Italy
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy
Accepted: 21 November 2019
We present the evolution of the X-ray emission properties of the magnetar 1E 1547.0–5408 since February 2004 over a time period covering three outbursts. We analyzed new and archival observations taken with the Swift, NuSTAR, Chandra, and XMM–Newton X-ray satellites. The source has been observed at a relatively steady soft X-ray flux of ≈10−11 erg cm−2 s−1 (0.3–10 keV) over the last 9 years, which is about an order of magnitude fainter than the flux at the peak of the last outburst in 2009, but a factor of ∼30 larger than the level in 2006. The broad-band spectrum extracted from two recent NuSTAR observations in April 2016 and February 2019 showed a faint hard X-ray emission up to ∼70 keV. Its spectrum is adequately described by a flat power law component, and its flux is ∼7 × 10−12 erg cm−2 s−1 (10–70 keV), that is a factor of ∼20 smaller than at the peak of the 2009 outburst. The hard X-ray spectral shape has flattened significantly in time, which is at variance with the overall cooling trend of the soft X-ray component. The pulse profile extracted from these NuSTAR pointings displays variability in shape and amplitude with energy (up to ≈25 keV). Our analysis shows that the flux of 1E 1547.0–5408 is not yet decaying to the 2006 level and that the source has been lingering in a stable, high-intensity state for several years. This might suggest that magnetars can hop among distinct persistent states that are probably connected to outburst episodes and that their persistent thermal emission can be almost entirely powered by the dissipation of currents in the corona.
Key words: stars: magnetars / stars: magnetic field / X-rays: individuals: 1E 1547.0–5408
© ESO 2020
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