Volume 633, January 2020
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Catalogs and data|
|Published online||23 January 2020|
The Forgotten Quadrant Survey
12CO and 13CO (1–0) survey of the Galactic plane in the range 220° <l <240° −2.°5 < b < 0°⋆
INAF – Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
2 Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
4 INAF – Istituto di Radioastronomia & Italian ALMA Regional Centre, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
5 Universidade de São Paulo, IAG Rua do Matão, 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090 São Paulo, Brazil
6 ESO/European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
Accepted: 22 November 2019
Aims. We present the Forgotten Quadrant Survey (FQS), an ESO large project that used the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory to map the Galactic plane in the range 220° < l < 240° and −2.°5 < b < 0°, both in 12CO (1–0) and 13CO (1–0), at a spectral resolution of 0.65 km s−1 and 0.26 km s−1.
Methods. We used the (1–0) transition of carbon monoxide to trace the molecular component of the interstellar medium. Our data set allows us to easily identify how the molecular dense gas is organised at different spatial scales: from the giant clouds with their denser filamentary networks, down to the clumps and cores that host the new-born stars and to obtain reliable estimates of their key physical parameters such as size and mass.
Results. We present the first release of the data of the FQS survey and discuss their quality. Spectra with 0.65 km s−1 velocity channels have noise ranging from 0.8 K to 1.3 K for 12CO (1–0) and from 0.3 K to 0.6 K for 13CO (1–0). In this first paper, we used the 12CO (1–0) spectral cubes to produce a catalogue of 263 molecular clouds. The clouds are grouped in three main structures corresponding to the Local, Perseus, and Outer arms up to a distance of ∼8.6 kpc from the Sun. This is the first self-consistent statistical catalogue of molecular clouds of the outer Galaxy obtained with a subarcminute spatial resolution and therefore able to detect not only the classical giant molecular clouds, but also the small clouds and to resolve the cloud structure at the sub-parsec scale up to a distance of a few kiloparsec. We found two classes of objects: structures with sizes above a few parsecs that are typical molecular clouds and may be self-gravitating, and subparsec structures that cannot be in gravitational equilibrium and are likely transient or confined by external pressure. We used the ratio between the Herschel H2 column density and the integrated intensity of the CO lines to calculate the CO conversion factor and we found mean values of (3.3 ± 1.4) × 1020 cm−2 (K km s−1)−1 and (1.2 ± 0.4) × 1021 cm−2 (K km s−1)−1, for 12CO (1–0) and 13CO (1–0), respectively.
Conclusions. The FQS contributes to the general effort in producing a new generation of high-quality spectroscopic data for the Galactic plane in the less-studied third Galactic quadrant toward the outer Galaxy. The FQS has produced a data set of great legacy value, largely improving the data quality both in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution over previous data sets.
Key words: ISM: clouds / ISM: structure / ISM: kinematics and dynamics
Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/633/A147
© ESO 2020
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