Volume 632, December 2019
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||28 November 2019|
Inferring the velocity of early massive stars from the abundances of extremely metal-poor stars
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501, Japan
2 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
3 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
4 Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
Accepted: 1 October 2019
Context. The nature of the early generation of massive stars can be inferred by investigating the origin of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, likely formed from the ejecta of one or a few previous massive stars.
Aims. We investigate the rotational properties of early massive stars by comparing the abundance patterns of EMP stars with massive stellar models including rotation.
Methods. Low metallicity 20 M⊙ massive stellar models with eight initial rotation rates between 0 and 70% of the critical velocity are computed. Explosions with strong fallback are assumed. The ejected material is considered to fit individually the abundance patterns of 272 EMP stars with −4 < [Fe/H] < −3.
Results. With increasing initial rotation, the [C/H], [N/H], [O/H], [Na/H], [Mg/H], and [Al/H] ratios in the massive star ejecta are gradually increased (up to ∼4 dex) while the 12C/13C ratio is decreased. Among the 272 EMP stars considered, ∼40 − 50% are consistent with our models. About 60 − 70% of the carbon-enhanced EMP star sample can be reproduced against ∼20 − 30% for the carbon-normal EMP star sample. The abundance patterns of carbon-enhanced EMP stars are preferentially reproduced with a material coming from mid to fast rotating massive stars. The overall velocity distribution derived from the best massive star models increases from no rotation to fast rotation. The maximum is reached for massive stars having initial equatorial velocities of ∼550 − 640 km s−1.
Conclusions. Although subject to significant uncertainties, these results suggest that the rotational mixing operating in between the H-burning shell and the He-burning core of early massive stars played an important role in the early chemical enrichment of the Universe. The comparison of the velocity distribution derived from the best massive star models with velocity distributions of nearby OB stars suggests that a greater number of massive fast rotators were present in the early Universe. This may have important consequences for reionization, the first supernovae, or integrated light from high redshift galaxies.
Key words: stars: massive / stars: rotation / stars: interiors / stars: abundances / stars: chemically peculiar / nuclear reactions / nucleosynthesis / abundances
© ESO 2019
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