Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||16 October 2019|
Multi-particle collisions in microgravity: Coefficient of restitution and sticking threshold for systems of mm-sized particles
Physics Department, University of Central Florida,
4000 Central Florida Boulevard,
Accepted: 2 September 2019
Context. The current model of planet formation lacks a good understanding of the growth of dust particles inside the protoplanetary disk beyond mm sizes. A similar collisional regime exists in dense planetary rings. In order to investigate the low-velocity collisions between this type of particles, the NanoRocks experiment was flown on the International Space Station (ISS) between September 2014 and March 2016. We present the results of this experiment.
Aims. The objectives of our data analysis are the quantification of the damping of energy in systems of multiple particles in the 0.1–1 mm size range while they are in the bouncing regime, and the study of the formation of clusters through sticking collisions between particles.
Methods. We developed statistical methods for the analysis of the large quantity of collision data collected by the experiment. We measured the average motion of particles, the moment of clustering, and the cluster size formed. In addition, we ran simple numerical simulations in order to validate our measurements.
Results. We computed the average coefficient of restitution (COR) of collisions and find values ranging from 0.55 for systems including a population of fine grains to 0.94 for systems of denser particles. We also measured the sticking threshold velocities and find values around 1 cm s−1, consistent with the current dust collision models based on independently collected experimental data.
Conclusions. Our findings have the following implications that can be useful for the simulation of particles in PPDs and planetary rings: (1) The average COR of collisions between same-sized free-floating particles at low speeds (<2 cm s−1) is not dependent on the collision velocity; (2) The simplified approach of using a constant COR value will accurately reproduce the average behavior of a particle system during collisional cooling; (3) At speeds below 5 mm s−1, the influence of particle rotation becomes apparent on the collision behavior; (4) Current dust collision models predicting sticking thresholds are robust.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: rings / protoplanetary disks
© ESO 2019
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.