Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||08 November 2019|
Chemical complexity in high-mass star formation
An observational and modeling case study of the AFGL 2591 VLA 3 hot core
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy,
2 Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Munich, Germany
3 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
4 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, 09047 Selargius (CA), Italy
6 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
7 UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
8 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
9 National Astronomical Observatory of China, Datun Road 20, Chaoyang, Beijing 100012, PR China
10 CAS Key Laboratory of FAST, NAOC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China
11 Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NH, UK
12 Max Planck Institut for Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
13 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
14 IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire de Grenoble, 38406 St.-Martin-d’Hères, France
15 Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
16 Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada
17 Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México
18 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
19 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC, INTA), Ctra. de Ajalvir, km. 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain
20 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF, UK
Accepted: 31 August 2019
Aims. In order to understand the observed molecular diversity in high-mass star-forming regions, we have to determine the underlying physical and chemical structure of those regions at high angular resolution and over a range of evolutionary stages.
Methods. We present a detailed observational and modeling study of the hot core VLA 3 in the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591, which is a target region of the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) large program CORE. Using NOEMA observations at 1.37 mm with an angular resolution of ~0″. 42 (1400 au at 3.33 kpc), we derived the physical and chemical structure of the source. We modeled the observed molecular abundances with the chemical evolution code MUSCLE (MUlti Stage ChemicaL codE).
Results. With the kinetic temperature tracers CH3CN and H2CO we observe a temperature distribution with a power-law index of q = 0.41 ± 0.08. Using the visibilities of the continuum emission we derive a density structure with a power-law index of p = 1.7 ± 0.1. The hot core spectra reveal high molecular abundances and a rich diversity in complex molecules. The majority of the molecules have an asymmetric spatial distribution around the forming protostar(s), which indicates a complex physical structure on scales <1400 au. Using MUSCLE, we are able to explain the observed molecular abundance of 10 out of 14 modeled species at an estimated hot core chemical age of ~21 100 yr. In contrast to the observational analysis, our chemical modeling predicts a lower density power-law index of p < 1.4. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.
Conclusions. Combining high spatial resolution observations with detailed chemical modeling allows us to derive a concise picture of the physical and chemical structure of the famous AFGL 2591 hot core. The next steps are to conduct a similar analysis for the whole CORE sample, and then use this analysis to constrain the chemical diversity in high-mass star formation to a much greater depth.
Key words: ISM: individual objects: AFGL 2591 / astrochemistry / ISM: molecules / stars: massive
© C. Gieser et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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