Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||15 November 2019|
Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2 Sydney Institute for Astronomy, The University of Sydney, School of Physics A28, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
3 Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D (ASTRO-3D), Australia
4 Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Australian National University, Stromlo, ACT 2611, Australia
5 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
6 Fellow of the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg, Germany
7 School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
8 Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratories, New York, NY 10027, USA
9 Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA
10 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
11 Macquarie University Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
12 Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
Accepted: 10 September 2019
Context. The Orion complex is arguably the most studied star-forming region in the Galaxy. While stars are still being born in the Orion nebula, the oldest part was believed to be no more than 13 Myr old.
Aims. In order to study the full hierarchy of star formation across the Orion complex, we perform a clustering analysis of the Ori OB1a region using new stellar surveys and derive robust ages for each identified stellar aggregate.
Methods. We use Gaia DR2 parameters supplemented with radial velocities from the GALAH and APOGEE surveys to perform clustering of the Ori OB1a association. Five overdensities are resolved in a six-dimensional parameter space (positions, distance, proper motions, and radial velocity). Most correspond to previously known structures (ASCC 16, 25 Orionis, ASCC 20, ASCC 21). We use Gaia DR2, Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS photometry to fit isochrones to the colour-magnitude diagrams of the identified clusters. The ages of the clusters can thus be measured with ∼10% precision.
Results. While four of the clusters have ages between 11 and 13 Myr, the ASCC 20 cluster stands out at an age of 21 ± 3 Myr. This is significantly greater than the age of any previously known component of the Orion complex. To some degree, all clusters overlap in at least one of the six phase-space dimensions.
Conclusions. We argue that the formation history of the Orion complex, and its relation to the Gould belt, must be reconsidered. A significant challenge in reconstructing the history of the Ori OB1a association is to understand the impact of the newly discovered 21 Myr old population on the younger parts of the complex, including their formation.
Key words: surveys / parallaxes / proper motions / stars: early-type / open clusters and associations: individual: Ori OB1a / Hertzsprung-Russell and C-M diagrams
Movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at https://www.aanda.org
Tables B.1–B.5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/631/A166
© ESO 2019
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