Volume 608, December 2017
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||19 December 2017|
Mapping young stellar populations toward Orion with Gaia DR1⋆
1 Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Center (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
3 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
Received: 3 June 2017
Accepted: 11 November 2017
In this work we use the first data release of the Gaia mission to explore the three-dimensional arrangement and age ordering of the many stellar groups toward the Orion OB association, aiming at a new classification and characterization of the stellar population not embedded in the Orion A and B molecular clouds. We make use of the parallaxes and proper motions provided in the Tycho Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) subset of the Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) catalog and of the combination of Gaia DR1 and 2MASS photometry. In TGAS, we find evidence for the presence of a young population at a parallax ϖ ~ 2.65 mas, which is loosely distributed around the following known clusters: 25 Ori, ϵ Ori, and σ Ori, and NGC 1980 (ι Ori) and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The low mass counterpart of this population is visible in the color magnitude diagrams constructed by combining Gaia DR1 G-band photometry and 2MASS. We study the density distribution of the young sources in the sky using a kernel density estimation (KDE). We find the same groups as in TGAS and also some other density enhancements that might be related to the recently discovered Orion X group, Orion dust ring, and λ Ori complex. The maps also suggest that the 25 Ori group presents a northern elongation. We estimated the ages of this population using a Bayesian isochronal fitting procedure assuming a unique parallax value for all the sources, and we inferred the presence of an age gradient going from 25 Ori (13−15 Myr) to the ONC (1−2 Myr). We confirmed this age ordering by repeating the Bayesian fit using the Pan-STARRS1 data. Intriguingly, the estimated ages toward the NGC 1980 cluster span a broad range of values. This can either be due to the presence of two populations coming from two different episodes of star formation or to a large spread along the line of sight of the same population. Some confusion might arise from the presence of unresolved binaries, which are not modeled in the fit, and usually mimic a younger population. Finally, we provisionally relate the stellar groups to the gas and dust features in Orion. Our results form the first step toward using Gaia data to unravel the complex star formation history of the Orion region in terms of the various star formation episodes, their duration, and their effects on the surrounding interstellar medium.
Key words: stars: distances / stars: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: early-type
The data and some relevant ipython notebooks used in the preparation of this paper are available at https://github.com/eleonorazari/OrionDR1, and also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A148
© ESO, 2017
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