Volume 630, October 2019
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||23 September 2019|
Water vapor detection in the transmission spectra of HD 209458 b with the CARMENES NIR channel
Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),
Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n,
2 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3 Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
4 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC, Camino bajo del castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
5 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Calle Vía Láctea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
6 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38026 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
7 Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
8 Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, c/ de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
9 Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
10 Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
11 School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK
12 Observatorio de Calar Alto, Sierra de los Filabres, 04550 Gérgal, Almería, Spain
13 Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
14 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
15 Departamento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica & IPARCOS-UCM (Instituto de Física de Partículas y del Cosmos de la UCM), Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
16 Department of Geophysics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
17 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
Accepted: 16 August 2019
Aims. We aim at detecting water vapor in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 209458 b and perform a multi-band study in the near infrared with CARMENES.
Methods. The water vapor absorption lines from the atmosphere of the planet are Doppler-shifted due to the large change in its radial velocity during transit. This shift is of the order of tens of km s−1, whilst the Earth’s telluric and the stellar lines can be considered quasi-static. We took advantage of this shift to remove the telluric and stellar lines using SYSREM, which performs a principal component analysis including proper error propagation. The residual spectra contain the signal from thousands of planetary molecular lines well below the noise level. We retrieve the information from those lines by cross-correlating the residual spectra with models of the atmospheric absorption of the planet.
Results. We find a cross-correlation signal with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 6.4, revealing H2O in HD 209458 b. We obtain a net blueshift of the signal of –5.2 −1.3+2.6 km s−1 that, despite the large error bars, is a firm indication of day- to night-side winds at the terminator of this hot Jupiter. Additionally, we performed a multi-band study for the detection of H2O individually from the three near infrared bands covered by CARMENES. We detect H2O from its 0.96–1.06 μm band with a S/N of 5.8, and also find hints of a detection from the 1.06–1.26 μm band, with a low S/N of 2.8. No clear planetary signal is found from the 1.26–1.62 μm band.
Conclusions. Our significant H2O signal at 0.96–1.06 μm in HD 209458 b represents the first detection of H2O from this band individually, the bluest one to date. The unfavorable observational conditions might be the reason for the inconclusive detection from the stronger 1.15 and 1.4 μm bands. H2O is detected from the 0.96–1.06 μm band in HD 209458 b, but hardly in HD 189733 b, which supports a stronger aerosol extinction in the latter, in line with previous studies. Future data gathered at more stable conditions and with larger S/N at both optical and near-infrared wavelengths could help to characterize the presence of aerosols in HD 209458 b and other planets.
Key words: planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: individual: HD 209458 b / techniques: spectroscopic / infrared: planetary systems
© A. Sánchez-López et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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