Volume 630, October 2019
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||30 September 2019|
Time-dependent galactic winds
II. Effects of boundary variations in the disc and galactic halo
Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180
2 Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Accepted: 2 July 2019
Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) are transported out of the galaxy by diffusion and advection due to streaming along magnetic field lines and resonant scattering off self-excited magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Thus momentum is transferred to the plasma via the frozen-in waves as a mediator assisting the thermal pressure in driving a galactic wind.
Aims. Galactic CRs (GCRs) are accelerated by shock waves generated in supernova remnants (SNRs), and they propagate from the disc into the halo. Therefore CR acceleration in the halo strongly depends on the inner disc boundary conditions.
Methods. We performed hydrodynamical simulations of galactic winds in flux tube geometry appropriate for disc galaxies, describing the CR diffusive-advective transport in a hydrodynamical fashion (by taking appropriate moments of the Fokker-Planck equation) along with the energy exchange with self-generated MHD waves.
Results. Our time-dependent CR hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the evolution of galactic winds with feedback depends on the structure of the galactic halo. In case of a wind-structured halo, the wind breaks down after the last super nova (SN) has exploded.
Conclusions. The mechanism described here offers a natural and elegant solution to explain the power-law distribution of CRs between the “knee” and the “ankle”. The transition will be naturally smooth, because the Galactic CRs accelerated at SN shocks will be “post-accelerated” by shocks generated at the inner boundary and travelling through the halo.
Key words: Galaxy: evolution / ISM: jets and outflows / shock waves / ISM: supernova remnants / cosmic rays
© ESO 2019
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