Volume 628, August 2019
|Number of page(s)||32|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||26 July 2019|
Atmospheric characterization of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b
Detection of CaII, FeII, NaI, and the Balmer series of H (Hα, Hβ, and Hγ) with high-dispersion transit spectroscopy★
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias,
Vía Láctea s/n,
2 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Spain
3 Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
4 Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, PR China
5 Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
6 Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK
7 SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
8 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
9 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
10 SOKENDAI (The Graduate University of Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
11 Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
12 JST, PRESTO, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
13 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
14 Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Accepted: 29 May 2019
Ultra-hot Jupiters orbit very close to their host star and consequently receive strong irradiation, causing their atmospheric chemistry to be different from the common gas giants. Here, we have studied the atmosphere of one of these particular hot planets, MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b, using four transit observations with high resolution spectroscopy facilities. Three of these observations were performed with HARPS-N and one with CARMENES. Additionally, we simultaneously observed one of the transits with MuSCAT2 to monitor possible spots in the stellar surface. At high resolution, the transmission residuals show the effects of Rossiter-McLaughlin and centre-to-limb variations from the stellar lines profiles, which we have corrected to finally extract the transmission spectra of the planet. We clearly observe the absorption features of CaII, FeII, NaI, Hα, and Hβ in the atmosphere of MASCARA-2b, and indications of Hγ and MgI at low signal-to-noise ratio. In the case of NaI, the true absorption is difficult to disentangle from the strong telluric and interstellar contamination. The results obtained with CARMENES and HARPS-N are consistent, measuring an Hα absorption depth of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 0.59 ± 0.07%, and NaI absorption of 0.11 ± 0.04 and 0.09 ± 0.05% for a 0.75 Å passband, in the two instruments respectively. The Hα absorption corresponds to ~1.2 Rp, which implies an expanded atmosphere, as a result of the gas heating caused by the irradiation received from the host star. For Hβ and Hγ only HARPS-N covers this wavelength range, measuring an absorption depth of 0.28 ± 0.06 and 0.21 ± 0.07%, respectively. For CaII, only CARMENES covers this wavelength range measuring an absorption depth of 0.28 ± 0.05, 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.27 ± 0.06% for CaII λ8498Å, λ8542Å and λ8662Å lines, respectively. Three additional absorption lines of FeII are observed in the transmission spectrum by HARPS-N (partially covered by CARMENES), measuring an average absorption depth of 0.08 ± 0.04% (0.75 Å passband). The results presented here are consistent with theoretical models of ultra-hot Jupiters atmospheres, suggesting the emergence of an ionised gas on the day-side of such planets. Calcium and iron, together with other elements, are expected to be singly ionised at these temperatures and be more numerous than its neutral state. The Calcium triplet lines are detected here for the first time in transmission in an exoplanet atmosphere.
Key words: planets and satellites: atmospheres / planetary systems / methods: observational / techniques: spectroscopic / planets and satellites: individual: MASCARA-2b / planets and satellites: individual: KELT-20b
Reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/628/A9
© ESO 2019
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