Volume 627, July 2019
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Published online||25 June 2019|
Groupe d’Astrophysique des Hautes Energies, STAR, Université de Liège, Quartier Agora (B5c, Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique), Allée du 6 Août 19c, 4000 Sart Tilman,
2 Observatori Puig d’Agulles, Passatge Bosc 1, 08759 Vallirana, Barcelona, Spain
Accepted: 13 May 2019
Aims. The Cyg OB2 #5 system is thought to consist of a short-period (6.6 d) eclipsing massive binary orbited by an OB-star with a period of ~6.7 yr; these stars in turn are orbited by a distant early B-star with a period of thousands of years. However, while the inner binary has been studied many times, information is missing on the other stars, in particular the third star whose presence was indirectly postulated from recurrent modulations in the radio domain. Besides, to this date, the X-ray light curve could not be fully interpreted, for example in the framework of colliding-wind emission linked to one of the systems.
Methods. We obtained new optical and X-ray observations of Cyg OB2 #5, which we combined to archival data. We performed a thorough and homogeneous investigation of all available data, notably revisiting the times of primary minimum in photometry.
Results. In the X-ray domain, XMM-Newton provides scattered exposures over ~5000 d whilst Swift provides a nearly continuous monitoring for the last couple of years. Although the X-ray light curve reveals clear variability, no significant period can be found hence the high-energy emission cannot be explained solely in terms of colliding winds varying along either the short or intermediate orbits. The optical data reveal for the first time clear signs of reflex motion. The photometry indicates the presence of a 2366 d (i.e. 6.5 yr) period while the associated radial velocity changes are detected at the 3σ level in the systemic velocity of the He II λ 4686 emission line. With the revised period, the radio light curve is interpreted consistently in terms of a wind interaction between the inner binary and the tertiary star. From these optical and radio data, we derive constraints on the physical properties of the tertiary star and its orbit.
Key words: stars: early-type / stars: winds, outflows / X-rays: stars / binaries: spectroscopic / binaries: eclipsing / stars: individual: Cyg OB2 #5
Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/627/A2
Based on spectra obtained with the TIGRE telescope, located at La Luz observatory, Mexico (TIGRE is a collaboration of the Hamburger Sternwarte, the Universities of Hamburg, Guanajuato, and Liège), as well as data collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, with the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, and with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).
© ESO 2019
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