Volume 627, July 2019
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Published online||10 July 2019|
Temporal evolution and correlations of optical activity indicators measured in Sun-as-a-star observations⋆
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3 Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
4 SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
5 Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK
6 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
7 Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
8 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
9 SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
10 Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
11 Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
12 INAF – Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, 38712 Breña Baja, Tenerife, Spain
13 Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
14 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, 09047 Selargius, Italy
15 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
16 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
17 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate LC, Italy
Accepted: 6 June 2019
Context. Understanding stellar activity in solar-type stars is crucial for the physics of stellar atmospheres as well as for ongoing exoplanet programmes.
Aims. We aim to test how well we understand stellar activity using our own star, the Sun, as a test case.
Methods. We performed a detailed study of the main optical activity indicators (Ca II H & K, Balmer lines, Na I D1 D2, and He I D3) measured for the Sun using the data provided by the HARPS-N solar-telescope feed at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. We made use of periodogram analyses to study solar rotation, and we used the pool variance technique to study the temporal evolution of active regions. The correlations between the different activity indicators as well as the correlations between activity indexes and the derived parameters from the cross-correlation technique are analysed. We also study the temporal evolution of these correlations and their possible relationship with indicators of inhomogeneities in the solar photosphere like sunspot number or radio flux values.
Results. The value of the solar rotation period is found in all the activity indicators, with the only exception being Hδ. The derived values vary from 26.29 days (Hγ line) to 31.23 days (He I). From an analysis of sliding periodograms we find that in most of the activity indicators the spectral power is split into several “bands” of periods around 26 and 30 days. They might be explained by the migration of active regions between the equator and a latitude of ∼30°, spot evolution, or a combination of both effects. A typical lifetime of active regions of approximately ten rotation periods is inferred from the pooled variance diagrams, which is in agreement with previous works. We find that Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hϵ, and He I show a significant correlation with the S index. Significant correlations between the contrast, bisector span, and the heliocentric radial velocity with the activity indexes are also found. We show that the full width at half maximum, the bisector, and the disc-integrated magnetic field correlate with the radial velocity variations. The correlation of the S index and Hα changes with time, increasing with larger sun spot numbers and solar irradiance. A similar tendency with the S index and radial velocity correlation is also present in the data.
Conclusions. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which higher activity favours the correlation between the S index and the Hα activity indicators and between the S index and radial velocity variations.
Key words: Sun: activity / Sun: chromosphere / Sun: rotation / techniques: spectroscopic
Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/627/A118
© ESO 2019
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