Volume 624, April 2019
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||02 April 2019|
Kepler-411: a four-planet system with an active host star★
Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
2 Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216, PR China
3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China
4 Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
5 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU), 111 Renai Road, Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123, PR China
Accepted: 13 December 2018
We present a detailed characterization of the Kepler-411 system (KOI 1781). This system was previously known to host two transiting planets: one with a period of 3 days (R = 2.4 R⊕; Kepler-411b) and one with a period of 7.8 days (R = 4.4 R⊕; Kepler-411c), as well as a transiting planetary candidate with a 58-day period (R = 3.3 R⊕; KOI 1781.03) from Kepler photometry. Here, we combine Kepler photometry data and new transit timing variation (TTV) measurements from all the Kepler quarters with previous adaptive-optics imaging results, and dynamical simulations, in order to constrain the properties of the Kepler-411 system. From our analysis, we obtain masses of 25.6 ± 2.6 M⊕ for Kepler-411b and 26.4 ± 5.9 M⊕ for Kepler-411c, and we confirm the planetary nature of KOI 1781.03 with a mass of 15.2 ± 5.1 M⊕, hence the name Kepler-411d. Furthermore, by assuming near-coplanarity of the system (mutual inclination below 30°), we discover a nontransiting planet, Kepler-411e, with a mass of 10.8 ± 1.1 M⊕ on a 31.5-day orbit, which has a strong dynamical interaction with Kepler-411d. With densities of 1.71 ± 0.39 g cm−3 and 2.32 ± 0.83 g cm−3, both Kepler-411c and Kepler-411d belong to the group of planets with a massive core and a significant fraction of volatiles. Although Kepler-411b has a sub-Neptune size, it belongs to the group of rocky planets.
Key words: planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / stars: activity / planetary systems / starspots
Tables 2–4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/624/A15
© ESO 2019
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