Volume 623, March 2019
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Published online||05 March 2019|
The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs
Activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths★
Institut für Astrophysik,
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
3 Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
4 Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, c/ de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
5 Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
6 Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
7 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, Spain
8 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
9 School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
10 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
11 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
12 Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
13 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
14 Departamento de Astrofísica y Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
15 Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CSIC-MPG), Observatorio Astronómico de Calar Alto, Sierra de los Filabres, 04550 Gérgal, Almería, Spain
16 School of Geosciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel
Accepted: 18 January 2019
Context. The Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs (CARMENES) survey is searching for Earth-like planets orbiting M dwarfs using the radial velocity method. Studying the stellar activity of the target stars is important to avoid false planet detections and to improve our understanding of the atmospheres of late-type stars.
Aims. In this work we present measurements of activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths for 331 M dwarfs observed with CARMENES. Our aim is to identify the activity indicators that are most sensitive and easiest to measure, and the correlations among these indicators. We also wish to characterise their variability.
Methods. Using a spectral subtraction technique, we measured pseudo-equivalent widths of the He I D3, Hα, He I λ10833 Å, and Pa β lines, the Na I D doublet, and the Ca II infrared triplet, which have a chromospheric component in active M dwarfs. In addition, we measured an index of the strength of two TiO and two VO bands, which are formed in the photosphere. We also searched for periodicities in these activity indicators for all sample stars using generalised Lomb-Scargle periodograms.
Results. We find that the most slowly rotating stars of each spectral subtype have the strongest Hα absorption. Hα is correlated most strongly with He I D3, whereas Na I D and the Ca II infrared triplet are also correlated with Hα. He I λ10833 Å and Paβ show no clear correlations with the other indicators. The TiO bands show an activity effect that does not appear in the VO bands. We find that the relative variations of Hα and He I D3 are smaller for stars with higher activity levels, while this anti-correlation is weaker for Na I D and the Ca II infrared triplet, and is absent for He I λ10833 Å and Paβ. Periodic variation with the rotation period most commonly appears in the TiO bands, Hα, and in the Ca II infrared triplet.
Key words: stars: activity / stars: late-type / stars: low-mass
The full version of Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/623/A44
© ESO 2019
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