Volume 623, March 2019
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||08 March 2019|
The ALMA-PILS survey: the first detection of doubly deuterated methyl formate (CHD2OCHO) in the ISM
Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute & Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen,
Øster Voldgade 5-7,
1350 Copenhagen K.,
2 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
3 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
4 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allé Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
5 Center for Space and Habitability (CSH), University of Bern, Sidlestrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
6 ASTRON Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, PO Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
7 SKA Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL, UK
Accepted: 20 November 2018
Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in star formation regions. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Because the temperatures in star formation regions are low, these isotopologues are enhanced to significant levels, which enables the detection of multiply deuterated species. However, for complex organic species, so far only the multiply deuterated variants of methanol and methyl cyanide have been reported. The aim of this paper is to initiate the characterisation of multiply deuterated variants of complex organic species with the first detection of doubly deuterated methyl formate, CHD2OCHO. We use ALMA observations from the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) of the protostellar binary IRAS 16293–2422 in the spectral range of 329.1 GHz to 362.9 GHz. Spectra towards each of the two protostars are extracted and analysed using a local thermal equilibrium model in order to derive the abundances of methyl formate and its deuterated variants. We report the first detection of doubly deuterated methyl formate CHD2OCHO in the ISM. The D-to-H ratio (D/H ratio) of CHD2OCHO is found to be 2–3 times higher than the D/H ratio of CH2DOCHO for both sources, similar to the results for formaldehyde from the same dataset. The observations are compared to a gas-grain chemical network coupled to a dynamical physical model, tracing the evolution of a molecular cloud until the end of the Class 0 protostellar stage. The overall D/H ratio enhancements found in the observations are of about the same magnitude as the predictions from the model for the early stages of Class 0 protostars. However, that the D/H ratio of CHD2OCHO is higher than that of CH2DOCHO is still not predicted by the model. This suggests that a mechanism enhances the D/H ratio of singly and doubly deuterated methyl formate that is not in the model, for instance, mechanisms for H–D substitutions. This new detection provides an important constraint on the formation routes of methyl formate and outlines a path forward in terms of using these ratios to determine the formation of organic molecules through observations of differently deuterated isotopologues towards embedded protostars.
Key words: astrochemistry / stars: formation / stars: protostars / ISM: molecules / ISM: individual objects: IRAS 16293–2422
© ESO 2019
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.