The ALMA-PILS survey: complex nitriles towards IRAS 16293–2422
Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute & Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5–7, 1350 Copenhagen K., Denmark
2 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
3 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
4 SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK11 9DL, UK
5 Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA
6 Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 43992 Onsala, Sweden
7 ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
8 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
9 Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
10 Center for Space and Habitability (CSH), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Accepted: 24 April 2018
Context. Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. Their detection is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of the Universe and exploring the link between the early stages of star formation and the formation of solar system bodies, where complex organic molecules have been found in abundance. In particular, molecules that contain nitrogen are interesting due to the role nitrogen plays in the development of life and the compact scales such molecules have been found to trace around forming protostars.
Aims. The goal of this work is to determine the inventory of one family of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules, complex nitriles (molecules with a –C≡N functional group) towards two hot corino sources in the low-mass protostellar binary IRAS 16293–2422. This work explores the abundance differences between the two sources, the isotopic ratios, and the spatial extent derived from molecules containing the nitrile functional group.
Methods. Using data from the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) obtained with ALMA, we determine abundances and excitation temperatures for the detected nitriles. We also present a new method for determining the spatial structure of sources with high line density and large velocity gradients – Velocity-corrected INtegrated emission (VINE) maps.
Results. We detect methyl cyanide (CH3CN) as well as five of its isotopologues, including CHD2CN, which is the first detection in the interstellar medium (ISM). We also detect ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN), vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N). We find that abundances are similar between IRAS 16293A and IRAS 16293B on small scales except for vinyl cyanide which is only detected towards the latter source. This suggests an important difference between the sources either in their evolutionary stage or warm-up timescales. We also detect a spatially double-peaked emission for the first time in molecular emission in the A source, suggesting that this source is showing structure related to a rotating toroid of material.
Conclusions. With high-resolution observations, we have been able to show for the first time a number of important similarities and differences in the nitrile chemistry in these objects. These illustrate the utility of nitriles as potential tracers of the physical conditions in star-forming regions.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: protostars / ISM: molecules / ISM: individual objects: IRAS 16293–2422
© ESO 2018