Tidal deformability and other global parameters of compact stars with strong phase transitions
Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, PAS, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
2 Astronomical Observatory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
3 APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France
Accepted: 24 December 2018
Context. Using parametric equations of state (relativistic polytropes and a simple quark bag model) to model dense-matter phase transitions, we study global, measurable astrophysical parameters of compact stars such as their allowed radii and tidal deformabilities. We also investigate the influence of stiffness of matter before the onset of the phase transitions on the parameters of the possible exotic dense phase.
Aims. The aim of our study is to compare the parameter space of the dense matter equation of state permitting phase transitions to a sub-space compatible with current observational constraints such as the maximum observable mass, tidal deformabilities of neutron star mergers, radii of configurations before the onset of the phase transition, and to give predictions for future observations.
Methods. We studied solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for a flexible set of parametric equations of state, constructed using a realistic description of neutron-star crust (up to the nuclear saturation density), and relativistic polytropes connected by a density-jump phase transition to a simple bag model description of deconfined quark matter.
Results. In order to be consistent with recent observations of massive neutron stars, a compact star with a strong high-mass phase transition cannot have a radius smaller than 12 km in the range of masses 1.2 − 1.6 M⊙. We also compare tidal deformabilities of stars with weak and strong phase transitions with the results of the GW170817 neutron star merger. Specifically, we study characteristic phase transition features in the Λ1 − Λ2 relation, and estimate the deviations of our results from the approximate formulæ for Λ∼ − R (M1) and Λ-compactness proposed in the literature. We find constraints on the hybrid equations of state to produce stable neutron stars on the twin branch. For the exemplary equations of state most of the high-mass twins occur for the minimum values of the density jump λ = 1.33 − 1.54; corresponding values of the square of the speed of sound are α = 0.7 − 0.37. We compare results with observations of gravitational waves and with the theoretical causal limit and find that the minimum radius of a twin branch is between 9.5 and 10.5 km, and depends on the phase transition baryon density. For these solutions the phase transition occurs below 0.56 fm−3.
Key words: stars: neutron / equation of state / dense matter
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