Volume 622, February 2019
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Published online||29 January 2019|
Characterization of the in-flight properties of the Planck telescope
European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
2 APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France
3 CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
4 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
5 DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
6 Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/ Federico García Lorca, 18, Oviedo, Spain
7 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
8 Department of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
9 Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
10 Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
11 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
12 Haverford College Astronomy Department, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA, USA
13 Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
14 INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
15 INAF/IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy
16 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
17 Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
18 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, USA
19 LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, Paris, France
20 The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
21 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
22 TICRA, Laederstraede 34, Copenhaguen, Denmark
Accepted: 30 November 2018
The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and surveyed the sky stably and continuously between August 2009 and October 2013. The scientific analysis of the Planck data requires understanding the optical response of its detectors, which originates partly from a physical model of the optical system. In this paper, we use in-flight measurements of planets within ∼1° of boresight to estimate the geometrical properties of the telescope and focal plane. First, we use observed grating lobes to measure the amplitude of mechanical dimpling of the reflectors, which is caused by the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the carbon fibre reflectors. We find that the dimpling amplitude on the two reflectors is larger than expected from the ground, by 20% on the secondary and at least a factor of 2 on the primary. Second, we use the main beam shapes of 26 detectors to investigate the alignment of the various elements of the optical system, as well as the large-scale deformations of the reflectors. We develop a metric to guide an iterative fitting scheme, and are able to determine a new geometric model that fits the in-flight measurements better than the pre-flight prediction according to this metric. The new alignment model is within the mechanical tolerances expected from the ground, with some specific but minor exceptions. We find that the reflectors contain large-scale sinusoidal deformations most probably related to the mechanical supports. In spite of the better overall fit, the new model still does not fit the beam measurements at a level compatible with the needs of cosmological analysis. Nonetheless, future analysis of the Planck data would benefit from taking into account some of the features of the new model. The analysis described here exemplifies some of the limitations of in-flight retrieval of the geometry of an optical system similar to that of Planck, and provides useful information for similar efforts in future experiments.
Key words: telescopes / methods: data analysis / space vehicles: instruments
© ESO 2019
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