Volume 621, January 2019
|Number of page(s)||36|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||10 January 2019|
Analysis of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae from the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory
The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
3 The School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
4 Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
5 Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
6 Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
7 Miller Senior Fellow, Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
8 Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
9 Las Cumbres Observatory, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
10 Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
11 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
12 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
14 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF, UK
15 Department of Astronomy/Mount Laguna Observatory, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92812-1221, USA
16 Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
17 Samba TV, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
Accepted: 12 November 2018
We study 34 Type Ic supernovae that have broad spectral features (SNe Ic-BL). This is the only SN type found in association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We obtained our photometric data with the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and its continuation, the intermediate PTF (iPTF). This is the first large, homogeneous sample of SNe Ic-BL from an untargeted survey. Furthermore, given the high observational cadence of iPTF, most of these SNe Ic-BL were discovered soon after explosion. We present K-corrected Bgriz light curves of these SNe, obtained through photometry on template-subtracted images. We analyzed the shape of the r-band light curves, finding a correlation between the decline parameter Δm15 and the rise parameter Δm−10. We studied the SN colors and, based on g − r, we estimated the host-galaxy extinction for each event. Peak r-band absolute magnitudes have an average of −18.6 ± 0.5 mag. We fit each r-band light curve with that of SN 1998bw (scaled and stretched) to derive the explosion epochs. We computed the bolometric light curves using bolometric corrections, r-band data, and g − r colors. Expansion velocities from Fe II were obtained by fitting spectral templates of SNe Ic. Bolometric light curves and velocities at peak were fitted using the semianalytic Arnett model to estimate ejecta mass Mej, explosion energy EK and 56Ni mass M(56Ni) for each SN. We find average values of Mej = 4 ± 3 M⊙, EK = (7 ± 6)×1051 erg, and M(56Ni)=0.31 ± 0.16 M⊙. The parameter distributions were compared to those presented in the literature and are overall in agreement with them. We also estimated the degree of 56Ni mixing using scaling relations derived from hydrodynamical models and we find that all the SNe are strongly mixed. The derived explosion parameters imply that at least 21% of the progenitors of SNe Ic-BL are compatible with massive (> 28 M⊙), possibly single stars, whereas at least 64% might come from less massive stars in close binary systems.
Key words: supernovae: general
© ESO 2019
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