Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around AF-type stars
X. The SOPHIE sample: combining the SOPHIE and HARPS surveys to compute the close giant planet mass-period distribution around AF-type stars★,★★
CNRS, IPAG, Université Grenoble Alpes,
2 Observatoire de Haute-Provence, Institut Pythéas UMS 3470, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 04870 St-Michel-l’Observatoire, France
3 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
4 LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, 13388 Marseille, France
5 Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
6 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
7 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743, USA
8 Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
9 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
10 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
11 ASI – Space Science Data Center (SSDC), Via del Politecnico snc, 00133 Rome, Italy
12 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Rome, Italy
Accepted: 30 August 2018
Context. The impact of stellar mass on the properties of giant planets is still not fully understood. Main-sequence (MS) stars more massive than the Sun remain relatively unexplored in radial velocity (RV) surveys, due to their characteristics which hinder classical RV measurements.
Aims. Our aim is to characterize the close (up to ~2 au) giant planet (GP) and brown dwarf (BD) population around AF MS stars and compare this population to stars with different masses.
Methods. We used the SOPHIE spectrograph located on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence to observe 125 northern, MS AF dwarfs. We used our dedicated SAFIR software to compute the RV and other spectroscopic observables. We characterized the detected substellar companions and computed the GP and BD occurrence rates combining the present SOPHIE survey and a similar HARPS survey.
Results. We present new data on two known planetary systems around the F5-6V dwarfs HD 16232 and HD 113337. For the latter, we report an additional RV variation that might be induced by a second GP on a wider orbit. We also report the detection of 15 binaries or massive substellar companions with high-amplitude RV variations or long-term RV trends. Based on 225 targets observed with SOPHIE and/or HARPS, we constrain the BD frequency within 2–3 au around AF stars to be below 4% (1σ). For Jupiter-mass GPs within 2–3 au (periods ≤103 days), we find the occurrence rate to be 3.7−1+3% around AF stars with masses <1.5 M⊙, and to be ≤6% (1σ) around AF stars with masses >1.5 M⊙. For periods shorter than 10 days, we find the GP occurrence rate to be below 3 and 4.5% (1σ), respectively. Our results are compatible with the GP frequency reported around FGK dwarfs and are compatible with a possible increase in GP orbital periods with stellar mass as predicted by formation models.
Key words: techniques: radial velocities / stars: early-type / planetary systems / stars: variables: general
RV time series of the full sample are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/621/A87
© ESO 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.