Volume 620, December 2018
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||23 November 2018|
The HP2 Survey
Department for Astrophysics, University of Vienna,
1180 Vienna, Austria
2 University of Milan, Department of Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan, Italy
3 Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
4 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA
5 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Accepted: 17 June 2018
Multi-wavelength observations in the sub-millimeter regime provide information on the distribution of both the dust column density and the effective dust temperature in molecular clouds. In this study, we created high-resolution and high-dynamic-range maps of the Pipe nebula region and explored the value of dust-temperature measurements in particular towards the dense cores embedded in the cloud. The maps are based on data from the Herschel and Planck satellites, and calibrated with a near-infrared extinction map based on 2MASS observations. We have considered a sample of previously defined cores and found that the majority of core regions contain at least one local temperature minimum. Moreover, we observed an anti-correlation between column density and temperature. The slope of this anti-correlation is dependent on the region boundaries and can be used as a metric to distinguish dense from diffuse areas in the cloud if systematic effects are addressed appropriately. Employing dust-temperature data thus allows us to draw conclusions on the thermodynamically dominant processes in this sample of cores: external heating by the interstellar radiation field and shielding by the surrounding medium. In addition, we have taken a first step towards a physically motivated core definition by recognising that the column–density–temperature anti-correlation is sensitive to the core boundaries. Dust-temperature maps therefore clearly contain valuable information about the physical state of the observed medium.
Key words: dust, extinction / ISM: structure / sub-millimeter: ISM / infrared: ISM / ISM: individual objects: Pipe nebula / methods: data analysis
The reduced Herschel–Planck map, and the column-density and temperature maps are only available at the CDS via. anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/620/A24
© ESO 2018
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