Volume 620, December 2018
The XXL Survey: second series
|Number of page(s)||28|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||20 November 2018|
The XXL Survey
Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNES, LAM,
2 INAF – Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
3 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4 Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
5 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, 19001 Casilla, Santiago 19, Chile
6 Departamento de Astronomía, DCNE-CGT, Universidad de Guanajuato; Callejón de Jalisco, s/n, Col. Valenciana, 36240 Guanajuato, Gto., Mexico
7 School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
8 INAF – IASF Milano, via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
9 Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. d’Écogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
10 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Physics Department, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
11 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde 1670, Australia
12 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, 06304 Nice, France
13 Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
14 Merton College, Oxford OX1 4JD, UK
15 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
16 Astrophysics and Space Research Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
17 Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
18 ICRAR, 1 Turner Avenue, Technology Park, Bentley, Western Australia 6102, Australia
19 University of St Andrews, College Gate, St Andrews, KY16 9AJ Fife, UK
20 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores Univ., IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
21 Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
22 Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
23 Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, PO Box 103980, 69029 Heidelberg, Germany
24 Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
25 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
26 Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
27 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Pietro Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
28 Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Space, Environment, and Earth, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, Sweden
29 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Brera 28, 20122 Milano, via E. Bianchi 46, 20121 Merate, Italy
30 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1, Canada
31 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
32 European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Operations Department, Villanueva de la Canãda, Madrid, Spain
33 Univ. degli studi di Milano, via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
34 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (DIFA), Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
35 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
36 National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa, Poland
37 IRAP Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France
38 Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-001 Cracow, Poland
39 INAF – IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
40 Aix-Marseille Université – Pharo, 58 bd Charles Livon Jardin du Pharo, 13007 Marseille, France
41 Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, 34119 Istanbul, Turkey
42 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
43 Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
44 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
45 National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nymfon, 11851 Athens, Greece
46 Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Accepted: 27 November 2017
Context. In the currently debated context of using clusters of galaxies as cosmological probes, the need for well-defined cluster samples is critical.
Aims. The XXL Survey has been specifically designed to provide a well characterised sample of some 500 X-ray detected clusters suitable for cosmological studies. The main goal of present article is to make public and describe the properties of the cluster catalogue in its present state, as well as of associated catalogues of more specific objects such as super-clusters and fossil groups.
Methods. Following from the publication of the hundred brightest XXL clusters, we now release a sample containing 365 clusters in total, down to a flux of a few 10−15 erg s−1 cm−2 in the [0.5–2] keV band and in a 1′ aperture. This release contains the complete subset of clusters for which the selection function is well determined plus all X-ray clusters which are, to date, spectroscopically confirmed. In this paper, we give the details of the follow-up observations and explain the procedure adopted to validate the cluster spectroscopic redshifts. Considering the whole XXL cluster sample, we have provided two types of selection, both complete in a particular sense: one based on flux-morphology criteria, and an alternative based on the [0.5–2] keV flux within 1 arcmin of the cluster centre. We have also provided X-ray temperature measurements for 80% of the clusters having a flux larger than 9 × 10−15 erg s−1 cm−2.
Results. Our cluster sample extends from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1.2, with one cluster at z ~ 2. Clusters were identified through a mean number of six spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. The largest number of confirmed spectroscopic members in a cluster is 41. Our updated luminosity function and luminosity–temperature relation are compatible with our previous determinations based on the 100 brightest clusters, but show smaller uncertainties. We also present an enlarged list of super-clusters and a sample of 18 possible fossil groups.
Conclusions. This intermediate publication is the last before the final release of the complete XXL cluster catalogue when the ongoing C2 cluster spectroscopic follow-up is complete. It provides a unique inventory of medium-mass clusters over a 50 deg2 area out to z ~ 1.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / large-scale structure of Universe / galaxies: groups: general / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories under programmes ID 191.A-0268 and 60.A-9302. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). This work is based in part on data products produced at Terapix available at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This research has made use of the VizieR catalogue access tool, CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has also made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/620/A5
© ESO 2018
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